Arihant Publication Books- Key To Success For Competitive Exams

Arihant Publications Books

In today’s times it has become inevitable to score higher in the exams for getting into reputed Educational Institutions and better career prospects. The text books that are in the syllabus are usually not enough for getting high scores in the exams and hence some additional reference book support is a must to get that cutting edge over other students. Therefore, it is very crucial that the preparations for the exams are done in a careful manner with proper books. Arihant publication books have earned a special name in coming out with some of the best study material for all students.
Arihant publication showcases a wide range of books on almost all the important subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology, Economics etc. These book are prepared specially keeping the students of Board Exams, Engineering & Medical entrances, NDA, CDS and other competitive exams in mind. This is the reason for the popularity of these books as they are complied as per student’s requirements to learn the subject and score higher in it.
Best Arihant CBSE and School Books

Arihant CBSE Exam books contains additional exercises, exam revision and problem solving questions. All these helps the student to practice more and more towards achieving excellence. The books are compact, portable and can serve as a handy reference book that is suitable for studies for everyday work. The concepts expressed in the Arihant books are easy to understand as they are displayed with a diagram or relevant pictures wherever possible. Also, these study books contain a chapter wise summary for all subjects hence, it has all the formulas and other basics that a students needs to learn on a particular subject.
Best Arihant Competitive Exams Books

Clearing the Entrance Exams for Engineering, Medical or Banking can be a daunting task especially when there are very few good books available for it in the market. Most of the times, the students rely on the text books they have studied in the school or on the general knowledge book available in the market for competitive exams, but there are no specific reference books for a particular subject. In such a scenario, Arihant books come handy to the prospective students. This is because this publication house invests lot of time and energy in preparing the best of reference study material for the students and prospective applicants of competitive exams. Preparing for GATE, CAT, IBPS Bank PO, LIC AAO, CMAT, JEE and other competitive exams can be done easily with Arihant entrance exam books.

The Lotto Black Book Insight – Lottery Scams Revealed!

The key to virtually any achievement in life is usually to carry out three factors: understand, watch and practice. These 3 factors determine how great you are in whatever you do starting from being good spouse being great at the office as well as winning the lottery. Through the use of these 3 things you can achieve anything you like in your lifetime and in case you merely base your life on fortune then your life is not within your command and everything appear accidental including the winning lottery numbers. Asking yourself how this can help you win the lottery?

The primary component is to understand. This means studying the principle of the field you are interested and in this example is winning the lottery jackpot. Well, there are numerous publications and guides developed in which many guys claim they can show you how to win the lotto, yet unfortunately have they won it themselves? When you study something the most important thing is to recognize the author of the book, that is who authored it, is he competent to publish in this particular area. The only qualified author on the theory of winning the lottery and a three times in a row lotto winner is Larry Blair, the author of the Lotto Blackbook. Larry Blair, is a math professor and the man discovered that the winning lottery numbers have a certain pattern in which they are drawn.

Thus, we come to the second factor and that is to watch or looking. To look at a thing is also very important due to the fact that by this approach you will be aware if the you’ve studied is valid or not no. Inside the Lotto Black Book there are specific instructions regarding how to accomplish this stage correctly so you can estimate the next winning numbers. This particular guide itself is made on observation and arithmetic but after winning the lottery few times Professor Blair made a decision to publish this book and reveal it to other people. Why he did it you can find out for yourself at www.LotteryMethod.us .

The last element is practice which put simply implies to doing something over and over again till you are doing it most effective. If you choose to obtain this guide and try it if it works for you or not than Professor Larry Blair gives you 60 days to get a windfall of course, if you don’t win anything he’ll certainly double your expense back for sure. This is a rather impressive statement made by him and it shows the degree of confidence he has that anybody can win the lottery. Well, a thing is not true if you didn’t see it on your own, therefore visit LottoBlackbook and find out what I am talking about.

Subliminal Influence Steering The Mind To A Desired Outcome

Wilson Bryan Key, a college professor who authored several books about subliminal messages and advertising, once said, “Subliminal perception is a subject that virtually no one wants to believe exists, and – if it does exist – they much less believe that it has any practical application.” however, Key added, “The techniques are in widespread use by media, advertising and public relations agencies, industrial and commercial corporations and by the federal government itself.”

Key’s books were published well after James Vicary’s famous claim that by incorporating subliminal messages into a movie screening, he significantly increased the sale of Coca-Cola and popcorn to theater-goers. Although Vicary later admitted the “experiment” was a hoax, the concept of subliminal influence caught on in the advertising industry. Many advertising agencies began incorporating subliminal visual stimuli in their campaigns. Such judgment- and behavior-affecting stimuli can include words or images flashed before the eyes too rapidly for the conscious mind to note them. The FCC outlawed subliminal influence in advertising in 1974, condemning the practice as unethical.

Despite the FCC decision and Key’s work, not everyone was convinced that subliminal influence was real. In 1992, the University of California, Santa Cruz conducted a study in which it concluded there was no evidence supporting the contention that subliminal advertising influences consumer behavior. The CIA released a report regarding the potential of subliminal perception in 1995, indicating that the technique’s practical applications were limited. In subsequent years, however, other studies have shown that subliminal influence is alive and well.

The July 2, 2010 edition of the journal Science reported that Ruud Custers and Henk Aarts of Utrecht University in the Netherlands, had presented evidence of the power of what they referred to as “unconscious will,” saying their work demonstrates that subliminal advertising techniques can work. John Bargh of Yale University called the Science paper a “landmark — nothing like this has been in Science before. It’s a large step toward overcoming the skepticism surrounding this research.” Over the years, subliminal influence has been covered extensively in a variety of publications, including the Canadian Journal of Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Counseling and Development and Journal of Marketing. During the 2000 U.S. presidential race, Democratic U.S. Senators Ron Wyden, of Oregon, and John Breaux, of Louisiana, asked the FCC to investigate the Republic party’s “RATS” campaign ad. The ad, which criticized Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore, displayed the word “RATS” briefly over the “The Gore Prescription Plan – Bureaucrats Decide.”

Republic presidential candidate George Bush’s campaign maintained the inclusion of “RATS” was an accident, Gore’s campaign claimed it was an intentional subliminal advertisement. A number of large corporations continue to use subliminal influence as a means of promoting team spirit among employees. Susan Haley, a self-described subliminal corporate trainer, counts Clorox, Genentech, American Express, Nintendo, Wells Fargo and Frito Lay among her clients. The most common use of subliminal influence in modern society is smoking cessation. Other positive applications of subliminal influence include helping students to learn academically, helping those who have experienced traumatic events to heal psychologically and improving self-image.

As the reader knows, these studies and opinions by government sources and so called ‘scholars’ each have an ulterior agenda. When the government finds something that can more easily control the minds of the population they either outlaw the practice and use it or downplay it so that news readers and university administrators stop training the concept as part of their curriculum. Self-proclaimed scholars at universities lack the knowledge to practice what they teach therefore they teach because they cannot ‘do’. The true talent is on the ground floor and in the trenches where both the government and university wannabe’s fear to tread.

Sources: “Negative subliminal messages work,” BBC News, Sept. 28, 2009; “The Operational Potential of Subliminal Perception,” by Richard Gafford, CIA report, 1995; “Think Your Operating on Free Will? Think Again,” by Eben Harrell, Time Magazine, July 2, 2010; “Hey, America, Check Out the Subliminal Messages Rick Santorum is Using to Scare the Crap Out of You,” by Henry Blodget, Business Insider, March 25, 2012; “Do-It-Yourself Corporate Teambuilding Programs by Haley Productions Help Businesses Experience the Power of Fun,” Hayley Productions; “The Ethics of Influence: An Interview With Elaina Zuker,” Jan. 20, 2012; Elaina Zuker Associates blog; “Understanding Subliminal Stimuli,” by Tony Greenwald, University of Washington, 1990; “Study Shows Subliminal Influences,” by Dan Wiener, Yale Daily News, April 10, 2012;”‘Subliminal’ Advertising,” by William O’Barr; “Science or Science Fiction?: Investigating the Possiblity (and Plausibility) of Subliminal Persuasion,” Laboratory Manual, by Nick Epley, Department of Psychology, Cornell University; “Twilight Learning: Looking Back and Forward to the Possibilities of Subliminal Messages,” Science Daily, Jan. 27, 2012

Optimization Design Of Insider Benq K60

Electronic products often seem to move forward in a nonlinear manner. For most consumers, dedicated e-book or electronic reader pop up only recently, however, the seeds of this product were sown long ago. Softbook from SoftbookPress company is a long-forgotten products, it is one of the first e-book devices, but also the object of 1998, we dismantled. About 8 years later in 2006, Sony introduced the first e-book device, the Sony Reader PRS-500. This product uses the latest listing of the electrophoretic display time (EPD), has the advantages of low power and high-readable, and the support of the manufacturer EInk to be popular. At this point the consumer interest in such equipment is still very limited, but online bookstore giant Amazon.com Kindle in late 2007 to bring readers into the market, the e-book market began to Heat up.

In the following years, the Amazon (Amazon) on the basis of the initial launch of a number of Kindle upgrade products. In 2009, the Amazon’s main rival Barnes & Noble has launched its own electronic reader product Nook. Mid-2010, e-reader vendor list has been growing (some brand names are very loud, and some have begun to deliver the product.)

This article is about BenQ (BenQ) has introduced the entry-level electronic reader product-K60. The Wi-Fi-only product is the main objective of the Asian market. Compared with the current leading products can be found, K60 seems to be the main features of the Amazon, Barnes & Noble company Sony and the optimized combination of similar products.

K60 is also now very popular with the EPD display, the diagonal size of 6.1 inches, with 16 gray levels. In view of the broad popular touch screen, the EPD is also equipped with BenQ capacitive touch screen coating, and at the bottom and one side can still see a few controls. Books download for data transfer is achieved via USB and 802.11b/gWLAN and support users of the microSD memory card.

From the end user’s point of view, K60 is the main feature is easy to download and purchase of Chinese and Japanese publications, and find the GoogleBooks English books. E-book reader with many existing products compared, K60 in the component suppliers have a big difference.

Currently the biggest advantage of e-reader is not to hurt the eyes of the “electronic paper” display, so far, almost all of the display using E-Ink screen produced by EPD. The K60 is a new monitor species, using the company’s 800×600 SiPix electrophoretic display. Han Rui from Microelectronics (PIXCIR) the company’s glass capacitive touch screen were bound directly to the EPD. AU Optronics (AUOptronics) module using a pair of Pixcir touch screen controller IC (TangoS32), data through the Atmel 8-bit microcontroller (ATmega168PA) into the time clock, and the display driver is Orise Technology (Orise) Company products (model unknown).

The application of core K60 Samsung (Samsung) of the 32/16 bit ARM9 processor (S3C2416), the processor to complete all major functions. Processor used in the design of monolithic printed circuit board support package, the chip including the independent Hynix (Hynix) Company DDR2SDRAM (H5MS1G62MFP) and Samsung MLCNAND Flash (KLM2G1DEDD). Samsung Wave of the latter are also used.

Wi-Fi module should be a company from Taiwan, USI (USI) of the product (WM-G-MT-03). The ready-made subsystems using MTK (MediaTek) single-chip 802.11b/gWLAN (MT5921) implementation of this component MediaTek in the Chinese mobile phone is often used, it does not appear in the BenQ product to surprise.

Healthy Lifestyle Food Choices That Promote Healthy Eating For Your Family

The best way to living a healthy lifestyle, eating healthy and forming healthy eating habits for the long run, has always come from within, within the home that is. We cannot look to others, books, magazines and publications for making us a healthy family or giving us the healthy lifestyle we would want to live. Sure these publications could give us the inspiration and motivation to take that step ourselves and to live a healthy lifestyle of choice. Everything still ends up with the home and family and we need to take that extra step in being courageous consumers when it comes to our choice of food.
One of those choices would be whether we want to continue eating obese foods, such as fast food, refined foods, processed foods or bleached foods. We need to take the responsibility and get back to what Mother Nature provided us, with food in its natural form, without any instructions to refine or process these foods. Obesity is directly linked to bad food choices in the form of highly refined carbohydrates and sugars which really is only a form of poison to our bodies. Gone are the days when considering those foods nutritious or beneficial to our families.
A solution each of us have available is to return to the bygone years of food production, or processing at home, sure it is less convenient, but the benefits are overwhelming an in a sense, you dont have to watch what you eat really if you are consuming natural, high fibrous and unprocessed food. These foods will not only provide a healthy lifestyle, but will enable you to take care of a healthy family through healthy cooking and eating.
Ways to produce healthy food for your family would be to look at obtaining a grain mill and natural whole wheat grains which you can mill in your own time and for purposes you need such as baking and providing daily natural and fresh bread to your family. Another would be to start a victory garden, or vegetable garden in your back yard or in smaller pots in order to provide your own vegetables and salad items for the table. These foods are so healthy and nutritious for your family that you would reap the benefits almost immediately without worries of consuming unnatural processed and refined foods from the store.
Make healthy cooking and eating a priority for your family and the benefits will be seen before long. Benefits would include healthy digestion, disease fighting nutrition, obesity suppression etc. which will lead to a healthy family and lifestyle you will be grateful for. Not to mention the fun and satisfaction in producing your own food, being independent wholly from buying all your food from the supermarket. You can start your journey on the road of independence and take charge of your healthy eating habits, cooking and eating to promote your healthy family
A last word on healthy eating habits is this: there are many ways to promote the healthy family lifestyle you want and deserve, look at fresh produce you can grow in your own yard, storing whole grain which will last years, and when milled will give you the best and freshest whole wheat flour you can use for all your healthy cooking requirements. Canning vegetables and sauces is very easy too and is a skill you can learn in a very short time. In a day and age where the economic future is uncertain, being able to produce and store your own healthy food is vital to your health and lifestyle you would like to preserve

Nitric Oxide choose Musclemeds Arimatest or Carnivor

Sports Nutrtion Dietary supplements at its greatest Muscle Meds

Muscle Meds have without having doubt have the fastest rising physique builder on the planet, on their publications and he goes by the title Kai Greene and rumour has it that his dimension includes a good deal to perform using the beef protein that’s in musclemeds carnivor, it’s unique and it’s the globe 1st bio engineered Beef protein isolate that packs on muscle like no other. It really is unlikely you’ve got heard about this, but we advise you try it.it.

A brand new era in sports nutrition is right here. MuscleMeds Efficiency Technologies represents the pinnacle in supplementation science, a state-of-the-art organization that unites overall performance enhancement with pharmaceutical-based nutritional engineering. Making use of foremost edge research and accurate solution innovation, MuscleMeds scientists have formulated new, proprietary technologies for significantly bettering athletic and human performance.
MuscleMeds has produced a number of the most thrilling items within the sports science marketplace. Item innovations these kinds of as pharmadynamic nutraceutical testosterone and hormone manipulation (Hexaghen and MethylArimatest) and fat-incinerating thermogenic breakthroughs that also greater power (MethyBURN) instantly set MuscleMeds aside from the competition. The discovery of 2-(nitrooxy) ethyl 2-amino-3-methylbutanoate – the world’s first Nitric Oxide Super-Molecule – manufactured the improvement of eNoxide essentially the most potent NO supplement advancement but. And now, with the unveiling of beef protein isolate technologies inside the type of Carnivor protein powder, MuscleMeds has surged ahead once a lot more in the creation from the most outrageous performance enhancing items actually created.
What greater testament to the exceptional solution efficacy of MuscleMeds than the addition of enormous IFBB pro bodybuilder Kai Greene towards the MuscleMeds staff. Early analysis and product or service growth using Kai being a test subject matter led for the creation of Hexaghen, eNoxide, Methyl Musclemeds Arimatest and Carnivor, making it possible for “The Predator” to pack on around 30 lbs. of rock-hard muscle. Kai’s operate with MuscleMeds researchers and their innovative formulas assisted this huge muscular marvel crush the competition and win the 2009 Arnold Traditional title.
“MuscleMeds has helped me recognize my greatest potential as being a expert bodybuilder,” says Kai, the most heavily muscled IFBB pro competitor on the planet today. “I credit MuscleMeds health supplements for bringing me towards the highest amount of competitive and muscle-building accomplishment.”
MuscleMeds Peformance Technologies represents the apex of innovation, science and efficiency enhancement. MuscleMeds sports activities nutrition dietary supplements – the cure for little muscles.
Brought to you by Cardiff Sports Nutrition

Musclemeds is a underground bodybuilding company that has the biggest bodybuilder on thier books, what makes musclemeds quite interesting is that Kai Greene uses beef protein and Musclemeds Arimatest not used by anyone else.

How Do Book Reviews Sell Books

Every author wants glowing book reviews with quotable sentences to use as testimonials. A good review makes readers flock to the bookstore to buy the book.

But how do authors get their books reviewed? While the process is not difficult, the book review industry is changing. Todays authors must designate a portion of their marketing budget for book reviews, and they must know how to use those book reviews to sell books.

Why Are Book Reviews Important?

More than 200,000 books are published each year. Less than 2% of those books sell more than 500 copies. Weve all heard the saying, So many books. So little time. People dont want to waste time or money reading books they wont enjoy, so they rely on book reviews to help them make buying decisions. Your book will stand out if it receives positive reviews from reliable reviewers.

Where Do I Get a Book Review?

There are five top book reviewers: Publishers Weekly, Kirkus, Library Journal, Midwest Book Review, and The New York Times; however, if youre self-published, it is unlikely your book will be reviewed by any of them. Reviews from local newspapers and magazines will only help you sell books locally. Furthermore, print publications are phasing out book reviews. So where can an author still get a good book review? The Internet.

Online book reviews are becoming standard, and your books review will reach a wider audience on the Internet. Online reviews level the playing field for self-published authors. Today, people are less inclined to read paper magazines and newspapers. They go online for information. Reviews posted at Amazon and other online sites are more accessible than print reviews. Reader Views and RebeccasReads are examples of reliable online book reviewers of both traditional and self-published books.

Free vs. Paid Reviews

Authors generally expect free book reviews; that was standard in the twentieth centuryadvertisements paid for the book reviews in print media. Today, however, authors must cover the cost of book reviews. A book reviewer may spend hours reading a book and writing a review, and he deserves compensation for his work. Consequently, authors must budget for the cost of book reviews. Authors are recommended to budget for mailing out a minimum of twenty books for review.

How Do Paid Book Reviews Work?

Paid reviews have multiple advantages. Most publications that offer free reviews do not guarantee a book review because of the volume of books submitted. Only by paying for a review can one be guaranteed. Reputable book reviewers will provide a review within a specific timelinetwo weeks is standard. They will also provide a review tear-sheet for your use, and give you permission to quote the review, provided you credit them. Many reviewers will also post your review online at such places as their own website, Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Ezine Articles, Goodreads and Authors Den.

Several online book reviewers, such as Reader Views, will give you the option of a free or paid book review. Reader Views will review the book for free provided one of their reviewers is interested in it. If no one opts to review it after three months, the book is returned without a review. If authors do not want to wait three months for a review, an express review can be purchased to guarantee a review within two weeks.

Several book reviewers, including Reader Views, also offer various publicity packages ranging from a single book review, to written and podcast radio interviews, virtual book tours, and book videos. Such packages allow authors the opportunity to get book reviews and publicity within their budget.

Just because you pay for a book review does not mean a good review is guaranteed. It is better to receive an honest review than one that gives false praise. The reviewers reputation is at stake here; readers will not appreciate being misled to waste their time and money on a book that does not meet their expectations.

How Do I Use a Book Review to Sell Books?

Before you do anything with your book review, make sure you know what permissions the reviewer has given you for using the review. Are you allowed to use it in whole or only a certain percentage? Can you reprint it or quote from it?

Once you know your rights, some suggestions for using the review to help sell books are:

Post it to Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Ezine Articles, Authors Den, Goodreads, Myspace etc. if the reviewer has not already done so.
Quote from the review on your book cover and the inside end papers. (If your book is already printed, use the review when you run a second printing).
Include the review in your press kit to gain more media attention.
Post and distribute the review at your book signings.
Post the review on your website.
Send copies of the review in your email newsletters.

Final Comments

More information about book reviews will be covered in future articles. But for now, here are a couple closing points:

1.Be professional. Send the reviewer a thank you note. Whether you receive a positive or negative review, the reviewer has done you a favor. The reviewers comments will help you improve your next book or the next edition of your book. Even a negative review can be used to build a positive relationship with a reviewer, who will appreciate your professionalism. The book world is a small place and you do not want word to spread that you are difficult. Seek to build long-term relationships with book reviewers, and through them, with your reading audience.

2.Be prepared for the book review to increase your book sales! A good review is worthless if you do not have copies of books to sell. Be prepared to fulfill your book orders so your customers are satisfied. After all, you want your book to be a bestseller!

Jyotipunj Narendra Modi

Only those who keep walking get sweet returns…look at the sun’s perseverance – dynamic & always on the move, never dormant… hence keep moving, says Narendra Modi, CM of Gujarat. A man of courage and values, Modi is a strong supporter of Hindutava and follower of RSS.
Continuing his penmanship, Narendra Modi has authored a new book offering glimpses of his journey from an ordinary worker of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) to a full-time functionary as pracharak. In JyotiPunj, Narendra Modi has attempted to communicate his persona, thinking and principles – and attribute them to the years he spent in the Sangh. Jyotipunj debunks many myths about the Sangh. The book reflects extraordinary works of ordinary people.

However Narendra Modis new book is more focused on several known and unknown RSS leaders, who have shaped the Gujarat Chief Ministers thinking. Modi wants to use the book to convey his commitment as strong Sangh man to the cadres. On the day of release of the book, Modi expressed his gratitude towards the RSS saying that he has learnt a lot from the leaders. Modi said during emergency when all the well known writers of the RSS were locked in jails, he was asked to publish a booklet, Abhay. It was during that time that he learnt the art of writing and he has compiled all his feelings about the leaders in the book. He said that his first book was released more than 30 years ago by Babubhai Jashbhai Patel, the then CM of Gujarat.
“Jyotipunj” highlights the lives of 16 leaders of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). In the book, Modi has written about the things he has learnt from these 16 leaders during his interactions with them. They include RSS founder K B Hedgewar and his successor M S Golwalkar, Nathalal Jhagda, K K Shastri, Laxmanrao Inamdar, Keshvrao Deshmukh, Madhukarrao Bhagwat, Shri Vasant Chiplunkar, Dr Vanikar, Anantrao Kade, Vasudevrao Talwalkar, Babubhai Oza and Dr P V Doshi.

Passionate and progressive, a poet at heart and an author of a few books and tech-savvy, Mr. Narendra Modi is one of the most responsive political leaders in India. Modis model of good governance is being applauded within the country and beyond. The way he has won the hearts of people of Gujarat and his popularity at the national level show that Good governance is also good politics.

This book has also been translated in Marathi by Ravindra Dani is a publication of Ameya Prakashan.

When Witchcraft and Magic Participate- Getting Down to the Bottom of the Community

On Theories of Development and Communication

Chancy Mauluka: MA Seminar Paper- Development Communications, University of Malawi-Chancellor College, Zomba, Malawi, 2005

WHEN WITCHCRAFT AND MAGIC PARTICIPATE; Getting to the Bottom of the Community

1.0 Introduction

One story exists among the people of Chirumba in Karonga district. Whether fictitious of true will not be questioned, but the story impregnates good lesson to the expert of participatory methods:

During the construction of the Chiweta-Karonga road, the road had to pass through some place where there was a big tree. When the path-finding tractor was some distance from the tree, the driver was approached by a man. -May you please divert the road and spear the tree?- The man probed for a possibility. And that would not work according to the driver. – Well, may you please cut it down tomorrow?- Pleaded the man. The man did not mention any reasons for the pleaded postponement of the task. And that did not make any sense to the path-finding driver who was working under schedule. The big tree was cut down on the very day; and on the following morning, the driver died.

Some tellers of the story will explain to you that the man was pleading because witches and wizards had to meet that night to remove their equipment from the tree and decide on another -rendezvous’

In this paper my duty is simply to bring to the spotlight some of the cultural traits in Africa that have for long been put at bay when even operationalising the definition of culture. When we say that culture has to participate, we usually have ideological limits of the degree of that cultural participation. One of such neglected cultural traits in Witchcraft and Magic. To what extent have these limited or promoted project success in rural communities?

Firstly, I will look into different theories of participation to highlight how in concept cultural participation has been deified/amplified. In terms of practical issues, I will look at some case studies from CRECCOM experience in the field. While interfacing theory and practice, it is my view that a holistic acceptance of -the culture of individuals’ while facilitating change, is more fruitful though a daunting duty..

2.0 The Theories

Participatory theories criticized the modernization paradigm on the grounds that it provided a top-down approach, ethnocentric and paternalistic view of development. They argued that the diffusion model proposed a conception of development associated with a western vision of progress. Development communication was informed by a theory that

– became a science of producing effective messages.- (Hein, in Quarmyne, 1991).[1]

Participatory theories considered necessary, a redefinition of development communication. One set of definitions stated that it meant the systematic utilization of communication channels and techniques to increase participation in development and to inform, motivate and train rural populations mainly the grassroots.

From the definition above we get the glimpse that while propaganda theories seek to enlighten, participatory theories seek to inform. Agunga (1991) takes it further in saying -communication means a process of creating and stimulating understanding as the basis for development rather than information transmission'[2].

Stimulating here has a reflection to Paulo’s approach which was termed as -Dialogical Pedagogy’ in his Pedagogy of the Oppressed ( 1970). It defined equity in distribution and active grassroots participation as central principles. Communication should provide a sense of ownership to participants through sharing and reconstructing of experiences.

Lori and Cindy Hanson in transforming Participatory Facilitation talk about prerequisite steps for participatory facilitation. These are categorized as The Building of relationships of Reciprocal Trust, the Shifting of Power and The Discovery of Spiritual Dimensions.[3]

In Building Relationships of Reciprocal Trust, the Hanson’s quoting Frere note that

– the majority of educators learn in an educational system dominated by didactic teaching methods that assume that the learner is an empty vessel to be filled with information and that the teacher is the transmitter of knowledge. As facilitators or educators we often repeat this pattern and consequently, participant or students become objects instead of subjects of learning.- Participatory leaning/education challenges this kind of relationship.

Participatory facilitators embark on a personal learning journey with the courage needed for self-discovery and personal change. When the commitment to learning and self-discovery join with skill in using participatory techniques, educators can engage in reciprocal learning with students, can fuel the growth of mutual trust, and in the process can lay the foundation for work towards lasting social change.

In Shifting the Power the Hansons first refer to Burke et al (1991) who say power issues and inequalities are inherent in any educational processes and are obstacles to establishing full participation and authentic relationships. These must be checked by the participatory facilitator right from the onset of training programs as the advertent/inappropriate use of power interferes within atmosphere of trust and safety on which growth centered approaches rest. The Hansons point out three important elements towards this decentralization i.e. the changing of roles and structures, the shifting of the control of information, and the discovery of spiritual dimensions.

What capsulates the Changing of roles and structures is the assumption of multiple roles by the facilitator. He has to be a facilitator-participant. Usually the dilemma of knowing -how much and when to lead-.is compounded by the fact that most people come from organizations where well-defined hierarchies and centralized decision-making, rather than group leadership-.are rules rather than exceptions'( Bhasin, 1991:13). Universities are notable examples of such hierarchies.

The task of destructuralisation is very challenging. Participants can experience discomfort by the change to a less structured learning environment. A lack of prescribed structure can be perceived as an apparent lack of leadership and direction. Participants can feel confused by the facilitator’s refusal to spell out specific objectives of learning activities so that they know -what to look for’. Their confusions are made worse by the inevitable silence while waiting for someone to start, to point out the relevance of something said or done, or to sum up an exercise. Eventually, however, participants do find resources within themselves to make sense of the situation and to define the meaning behind the experience. Most often, as a result, the uncomfortable silences and apparent leadership vacuum turn from confusion into a vital learning experience.

Typical Example- Personal Experience at Lisasadzi-Kasungu District:

Between 2003 and 2006, CRECCOM conducted the Malawi Education Support Activity

(MESA) Project in Kasungu, Mzimba-South, Phalombe and Machinga. In this project, to ensure empowerment of the -locals’, there were cluster leaders elected by the communities. These had the responsibility of promoting project goals while assisting the government field workers i.e. Primary Education Advisors (PEAs) and Community Development Assistants (CDAs). Promoting the concept and practice of decentralization was one of the project goals. In this, communities had to have a spirit of ownership by lobbying among themselves and lobbying from outsiders while mitigating against HIV and AIDS and promoting educational standards of their schools. After their election cluster leaders had to be trained. -Decentralization’ was one of the topics. While ensuring an inductive process of learning, I made sure that I did not give the definition of -decentralization’. Cluster Leaders had to come up with their definition/understanding while we facilitated. At Lisasadzi, in Kasungu district, a good number of leaders showed clear resentment of the method; and one leader from Kadifula cluster was able to mention that he was not being assisted: – Why don’t you just tell us the meaning of mphamvu ku anthu (meaning -decentralization). I thought we’ve come here too learn,’ commented the exasperated-looking leader. When I mentioned to them that we did not know either, and that what they hear on the radio might be false( or unrealistic to them), a good number of them looked very challenged. Definitely some felt the process was just there to brain-tease them. However, little by little they got into the tune, and there was maximum participation. Participants would challenge facilitators in a number of concepts. Though I dramatically tried not to show it, I personally got angry at one point when I thought I was saying the truth and these people could not understand. I felt a direct disadvantage of maximum participation- if that was what was happening.

By the end of the workshop, you could actually feel and see empowered cluster leaders. They were able to distort the timetable and extend it without expecting any payments e.g. while understanding the importance of their action plans, some felt they had to work over night and go the next day. – It needs to start from us. We have to show that we are -powerful’ (meaning decentralized). We cannot lobby from the government if we cannot lobby from withinst the community. And we cannot teach the spirit of lobbying if we are unable as leaders to lobby from ourselves. We are going tomorrow and we will not receive any allowances,’ commented the leader from Kadifula. Kadifula by the end tof the first year of the project’s circle was one of the best role models in Kasungu district.- Having outstanding initiatives on community involvement in HIV and AIDS mitigation and school improvement strategies.

In Theatre for Development ( TFD) practice poor facilitators have feared these moments of silence during the -forum scenes’ and have led to disastrous effects. Poor facilitators have lost the grasp that it is in these moments where lies the hub of participation. These are moments when the communities feel disenchanted because they ( previously) were expecting to be lectured but are suddenly turned into lecturers. These are moments of mental transition/adjustment and at times do represent moments of reflective mental processes. But while fearing this silence, as he/she thinks it means the people have not been motivated enough, the facilitator either turns into coercive tactics to involve them or speaks for them and all he/she expects are confirmatory responses. This turns the performance into a quasi-propaganda where the participants’ views are only shadows of the facilitators.

Discoursing on the role of the TFD facilitator, Boal sees the participant in the rural community as an oppressed person who does not have a voice and has to be persuaded to speak through the self-humiliation of the facilitator and the raising of -the esteem of the participant’. While doing this the participant has to be allowed to use his own symbols of expression which are experiential and meaningful to him.[4]

Transparency is another important element in -Shifting the Control of Information.’ Quoting Starhawk (1997) the Hansons say – if there is a perception that some individuals have information needed by others and are not sharing it , then trust cannot be established and individuals cannot feel safe.’ Yet it is trust in each other and in the process that assists people through unfamiliar moments. Creating clarity around issues of information involves opening up ourselves as facilitators, making ourselves vulnerable and becoming transparent in our methods.

It was therefore necessary during the Lisasadzi experience to first mention the perspective objectives of the workshop. Perspective objectives here mean the underlying objective of organic participation. The participants have to know what is expected of them. This levels the ground and clears the mist of awkward expectations, which may tamper with trust. Action researchers of TFD have at times become -sensitisers’ when challenged by a respondent’s silence on issues due to an omitted transparency on perspective objectives. They have been challenged by communities/respondents through elevation of their status ( that they are expecting to know from the researchers) to an extent that the researcher has been researched: – So I told her that school is very important and she needed to go back; especially that the GABLE policy allows young mothers to re-enroll after delivery,- reported one researcher during an SMC-EQ TFD research at Zulu, Mnchinji district ( CRECCOM, Raw Data, 2002)

In Discovering Spiritual Dimensions Jacque and Dillman ( 1997) say vulnerability, confronting risks, trust, cooperation, passion and patience are essential spiritual dimensions of both facilitation and learning. They should be considered as important to develop as the skills and techniques for assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Discovering spiritual dimensions will be possible when we commit to deconstructing our practice, and redefining our relationships with learners. This psychotic understanding should have great legacy of the three Christian theories of participation/democracy. These are the Consent, Participatory and Defensive theories.

Consent theories are an extrapolation of what O’Donovan has termed as -dual appointment’ theory according to which both divine and human appointment are required for the proper institution of political authority[5]. In this analogy, we see God as a participatory facilitator with acute vulnerability to accommodate the human will.

On the other hand Participatory theories endorse the principle of popular election as one expression of the general human potential or responsible freedom, and in more modern terms; self-development (-.). This is a more advanced Christian theory of participation because it is questing for an organic or maximum level of participation where the will of the people is the will of God. In project circles this could be translated into the understanding that the goals and objectives of the participants are the ones that decide the nature of leaning. Does this declare the facilitator redundant? To a great extent, yes. Because s/he has to know that s/he is a participant. In participatory learning everybody is a -facilitating-participator’.

Defensive theories are Marxist. They argue for -human potential for goodness as a necessary check on the unavoidable tendency of sinful holders of political authority’.[6] Human action here comes as an antithesis. This theory is lacking because it assumes an already empowered community. But empowerment comes through participation, methods through which could be the aforementioned.

It is important that I also hint on the – Participatory Anthropic Principle'[7] because of its strong philosophical base in matters of participation. It has often been remarked by physicists and chemists that the universe is very sensitively tuned to allow life to exist. As Hoyle, in 1983, pointed out, if certain physical and chemical constants were just a fraction out of their observed values, life should never have arisen. There is, for example, an ordinary series of coincidental physical conditions which led to the high cosmic abundance of the element carbon, the basis of life.

According to the cosmologists, the universe began as a quantum fluctuation in the limitless void. In the absence of an observer, the evolving universe remained a -multiverse’- a coherent quantum superposition of all logically possible states. It is the interaction of those states (- in other words participation’) that produced the observing life; and therefore the multiverse collapsed into one possibility.

What is mostly attractive in the quantum theory is that life itself is a result of participation. This elevates participation into a natural phenomenon and sanctifies any Marxist resistance to all social forces refusing to be part of this nature. It also espouses a horizontal relatedness of interacting -individuals’/states. The -good result’ should be a consequence of mutual interaction.

In operationalising participation Melkote says the participation-as-a-means to an end approach could be seen along a continuum: ranging from attempts at mobilization of a populace to cooperate in development activities to empowering the people so that they articulate and manage their own development. In participation-as-an-end, the people may not be expected to participate in identifying the problem and designing a development program. In such situations, participation by the people is very shallow, reduced to a process whereby people are externally manipulated to serve the ends of the authorities in charge of such programs ( Nair and White, 1987; Ascroft and Masilela, 1989; Diaz-Bordevan, 1989)[8]

While involving the people, Participatory Research is a very strong tool and it demands an educational process for the participant in the research as well as the researcher and there is a conscious commitment of the researcher to work for the cause of the community. Thus, traditional scientific principle of neutrality is rejected in this research ( Knoneburg, 1986:255 in Melkote, 1991: 242). It is important here to mention that conscious commitment and resistance of neutrality should not be confused with enlightenment. Researchers may fall into the trap of enlightenment (irresponsible sensitization) while claiming conscious commitment. It is still the question of -when and how to say what.’ For instance during a TFD or workshop, if information giving precedes participants’ contributions, it closes them up and researchers/facilitators merely turn into -enlighters’.

All the theories I have implored above seek to highlight the idea of the mutual-horizontal relationship between the facilitator and the participant for effective and sustainable results. In all organic involvements with communities, it is not only necessary but also mandatory that there has to be an organic acceptance of the life of the indegene. The indegene knows himself better and can deliberate about his processes and consequences better than anyone else. It is very important to note that while accepting the indegene holistically, there will be moments of surprise that raise fears form the -facilitator’ because the input of the indegene has gone far beyond the -facilitator’s’ expectations. B accepting the culture of the -local’, which is holistic, we are making a brave claim that we can accommodate that estrangement. One such estrangement would be when the indegene deliberates to use acts of witchcraft and magic to ensure effective and efficient implementation of a project. I will raise what I feel is a complicated question on this one. Imagine you are an implementing stakeholder, a Project Manager for instance. You have a project in one of the remote sites in Africa and are aiming at improving educational quality for girls. Early pregnancies have been cited as one of the preponderant factors affecting girls’ retention in school. Because ou are an organic participatory facilitator, you quest for solutions from the people themselves. After thorough and high level involvement, the people decide to employ a traditional/herbs doctor who will be aborting pregnancies secretively. What would be your intervention, taking into account global issues against abortion and balancing it with the idea of maximum participation? Answers to his would be as many as there are many participatory practitioners and many communities. But important to note in the question is the fact that the indegenes have proposed a strange method, which is indigenous.

In its endeavors to involve communities, CRECCOM has encountered several strange interventions emanating from the communities. Some of these interesting mitigations fall into acts of witchcraft and magic; which I feel are strong cases to be considered by any participatory facilitator.

3.0 The Creative Center for Community Mobilization (CRECCOM) and its Methods

CRECCOM envisions a Malawi with self-motivated citizens who are responsive to ever-changing socio-economic and political pressures for the betterment of their own welfare and has a mission of addressing the -acute constraints of lack of community involvement and participation (ownership) which most Malawian communities face in addressing their own and the country’s developmental needs’ ( CRECCOM as an Organization, 2005:1, 4-6))

Underlining the mission statement is the question of participation and ownership. CRECCOM achieves these through sensitization, motivation and mobilization among other things. For purposes of this paper, it is the motivation and mobilization component that will be highly summoned.

In motivating nd mobilizing communities CRECCOM uses Theatre for Development and Field worker/Community based workshops. During Theatre for Development Participatory Action Research is used. This proceeds into making the communities come up with action plans. In the workshops, the end result is also the making of the action plans. While the TFD action plans are made by the -mass’ in a community, plans in community based workshops are make by community leaders. -The secret during such engagement is to hand overt the stick’ (Mobilization Skills, CRECCOM Training Manual). In -handing over the stick’ what is meant is that the communities should ideally have full control of the situation. This full control should be from the planning stage, across the implementation stage and the monitoring. This entails that there is participatory planning, implementation and evaluation of success. The idea of handing down th stick limits the facilitator against temptations of domination and – it is this that has lead to the success of many projects in education, environmental conservation and HIV & AIDS’

( CRECCOM Manager- Personal Communication, 2005)

Among the outstanding impacts that the -handing over’ has achieved is the acceptance of -indigenous methods’ (methods of the indegene) of intervention without coercive interference from CRECCOM office. Witchcraft and magic fall appropriately and interestingly into this. The cases below highlight this claim:

3.1 Magic vs. Witchcraft- Cases of Kabvuzi, Buke and Nyezelera

In 1998 a Theatre for Development troupe went to Kabvuzi Primary School in Nkhatabay district. It was during the Social Mobilisation Campaign for Educational Quality ( SMC-EQ), a Project funded by USAID in Malawi. The project aimed at raising the consciousness of communities to identify their problems ad come up with solutions. During the Participatory Action Research a good number of community members mentioned that witchcraft was one preponderant factor that constrained the quality of education. It was mentioned that when ever national examinations for standard 8 pupils were months ahead ( to be written), there were faeces found in the Standard 8 classrooms. These faeces according to those members of the community had a spell of preventing selection. And years had passed without having pupils selected. Blames kept shifting as to who actually was responsible for the witchcrafting. Some blamed the rich people of Kabvuzi: – They already have their children in secondary schools and colleges and do not want or children to excel,’ and others blamed teachers for a similar envy: – They are already educated and do not want our children to pass.’ Some chiefs were also blamed: -They regret that such a beautiful school is not in their village and so do use acts of witchcraft to prevent our success. They know it is our chief who will be famous if children pass, because pupils will actually be withdrawing from surrounding schools to come here.’ Action researchers had to maintain their scientific detachment on the issue. During the mobilization performance the issue was discussed at length. Some – Learned’ members of the community blamed the District Educational Manager ( DEM) for having liased with the Malawi National Examinations Board ( MANEB) to put the school on a halt for selection, reasons for which were not explained. The DEM tried to explain his reasons with much ado, but after several huddles it took one woman in pain to take up the issue of witchcraft. A tense moment was born; now with only a few members speaking: Chiefs, members of the School Management Committee, a few teachers and a few members of the community. There were gaps of silences as the facilitators probed on what had to be done. Everyone showed in their eyes and conduct that the real issue was now being discussed. Cultural euphemism was employed as an operating language. You do not speak objectively about culturally sensitive issues. And no direct answer was given, but the big chief ( Traditional Authority) pulled his threats against the magical ill-practitioners and promised change to the community members. – We are going to look into that. And to those who are doing it. Let me say you are risking life on that!” Examinations were to be written a few months from that date. No single piece of faeces was found. Examinations were written. And there was selection that year.

At Buke Primary school in Balaka a similar thing happened. Teachers and some community leaders were blamed of witchcraft. After deliberations on the -forum scene’ in TFD, cultural guardians promised change. 66 pupils wrote exams and all got selected.

At Nyezelera ( of Phalombe) in 1999 it was the question of a tree. A big tree was near the school and people claimed that in there were spells put by spirits. At times, Snakes would fall from the tree to terrify people who sat under the tree without any consent from the spirits. And the school was -thought by the spirits to have been planted at their site.’ And so, there was no selection. After sympathetic magic they cut down the tree and seven pupils passed that year.

3.2 Project Property Gets Recovered- The Case of Mphembedzu (Phalombe District)

The Malawi Educational Support Activity ( MESA) is one of the projects that was implemented by CRECCOM. In the project there was a component of small grants. These were given to schools that had portrayed practical understanding of decentralization. They lobbied from among themselves before lobbying from CRECCOM and other donors. This was to advance the spirit of ownership. Even after te giving out of the grant the communities were reminded that once given, the grant was theirs and CRECCOM would not intervene. It would only monitor. The communities decided on their own how to use the grant.

At Mphembedzu, immediately after buying sewing machines and carpentry equipment, the property was stolen. Authorities informed CRECCOM and what CRECCOM did was only to remind them of the ownership they pledged during the reception of the grant and during the whole of the project’s life. There was heated debate on what they had to do. Suggestions to consult the Migowi Police were brushed aside by some members of the community who were sure they knew well on how to get the property back. The hosting chief promised CRECCOM that the property would be retrieved before a week ended. They consulted a traditional doctor who in turn promised to them that three days would never come to pass before the property was found. – The thieves will actually find you!’ asserted the doctor.

A day after the promise, the Head Teacher’s office was broken into for the second time. Another property was stolen! And these were note books. The following day three young men came selling note books to teachers at the school. They were the very note books that were stole the previous day. The boys were handed over to the police where they pleaded guilty of both offences: They were the ones who stole the note books and the machines. The equipment was recovered.

3.3 Taking Away the Cultural Spell- T he Case of Chiluwa

Chiluwa Primary School is in Ntchisi district of Central Malawi. World Vision built a school in the area. However, there was not enough if any consultation. The school was built on a site where there previously was a Dambwe. A Dambwe is a site where boys among the Chewa are culturally exposed to rites of passage from adolescence to adulthood. The site was highly revered by the community despite the fact that it was abandoned for new site. This is among other reasons because a Dambwe site is also a graveyard; and being so, it is believed that it’s a site of spirits, on whom the Gulewankulu cults rest so much.

After the institution of the school, cultural guardians threw in some threats that there was never going to be any comfortable schooling at Chiluwa. They lived up to their threats. Whenever the school session opened, masks came chasing kids out of the school. Discussions took place between the educational office and chiefs, but things never really changed. Some teachers would run out of the classroom after -seeing chameleons on the teaching board’ while delivering lessons. Teachers kept transferring and pupils had low learning time.

When CRECCOM went to the site with community based workshops, the -stick was handed over’. Community leaders identified problems that constrained educational quality at the school. And Gulewnkulu was mentioned as one of them. They made action plans to address that. Cult leaders were lso pat of the workshop. Among the action plans, chiefs included a plan that they would hold a workshop with all the gulewankulu cult leaders to ensure there was full collective deliberation.

Through tactful facilitation of the chiefs, the cult leaders promised change and made their action plans. The place was going to be -cleansed’ with their secretive methods. The masks no longer threatened teachers and pupils. They actually included in their plan, that they were going to facilitate the building of a teacher’s house. And so, masks went on picking sand to the school and entertained parents who were molding bricks. But if parents and leaders were building a school but pupils were regularly absent, it meant all the initiatives were useless. The masks therefore were on a rampage to chase pupils from their homes to school. The opposite thing had happened!

3.4 Rain Stops at Nthumba ( Balaka District) In Civic Involvement in Primary Education (CIPE), CRECCOM encourages communities to take up initiatives to address their problems and supports them with a small grant. Nthumba was one of the schools that stood out as role models in Chembera zone. An open day was organized by the people, supported by CRECCOM. Different stakeholders had to come from all over. There were government officials of high esteem, officials from other non-governmental organizations and from OSISA, the donor. It was a great day for the people of Nthumba. They had opened gardens, built twelve toilets , planted a mini-forest ( woodlot) and had installed hygiene tins outside the toilets. All these being CIPE holistic objectives to improve educational quality.

Distinguished guests had to arrive for the open day at around 9:00 A.M. But when it ws just past 8:00 AM signs were shown in the sky and those who had culturally studied rain for years knew it was going to fall heavily. It was dark and rain had started falling from distant places, with great drops announcing the heavy fall at Nthumba. Some participants started dispersing and it was definite, taking into account how rain had fallen that week, that the function was going to be postponed. But that did not sound well with the organizers, most of whom were community leaders. Much had gone into the preparations and it would mean a great loss. One chief said to a CRECCOM official and other organizers : – We are conducting the activity, I’ll be back!- After a few moments, when there was nobody on the activities’ arena, the rain ceased. It fell in distant places and never reached the area. Might have been a coincidence?

4.0 Conclusion

The cases above are all centered at the idea of -handing over the stick’ as conceptualized by CRECCOM. This means that the communities have to be let loose to facilitate their own development. The implementer of the project may advice in certain instances by the advice should not be geared at changing the course of direction suggested but the people but rather giving them information which they may use while deliberating on their welfare. Community resource mobilization means that communities have to have the capacity of developing an inventory of their skills , intellect and services which they feel are necessary for the effective and sustainable implementation of a project. While doing this, scientific detachment of the implementing-facilitators should be the rule i.e. project implementers need not be judgmental while offering their advice. It is only then that the indegene can use all the resources at his disposal to the maximum. And no resource is silly, as long as it is well explained by the beneficiary on how positively instrumental it may be if employed. One such resource is witchcraft and magic. The community has all potential for estrangement, because they are the -other’. Facilitators have the duty of -intercoursing’ themselves with that -other’ as one Community Development Advisor mentioned in Kasungu district:

– When ever I am conducting a community based workshop, I know I am a -youngster’ before these people. Three quarters of them might be witches, and they know there are things I can tell them and others I cannot. That should be at the back of our mind- (CDA- Name withheld, Chankhanga TDC-Field worker Training, 2004)

.

Bibliography

Bhasin, K. Participatory Development Demands Participatory Training; Convergence, 1991

Boal A, Theatre of the Oppressed, Pluto Press, London, 1979

Frere P, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, New York, Herder & Herder, 1970

The Communication Initiative, Family Tree of Theories, Methodologies and Strategies in Development Communication: Convergences and Differences, 2005

CRECCOM as an NGO and its Operations, CRECCOM-Publications, Zomba, 2005

CRECCOM Reports & Compendiums, 1998-2005

Hanson L, Hanson C, Transforming Participatory Facilitation: Reflections from Practice, E: E-Journal, 2001

Melkote S, Communication in the Third World: Theory and Practice, Sage Publications, New Delhi,/Newbury Park/London, 1991

Mott S.C, A Christian Perspective on Political Thought, Oxford University Press, 1993

O’Donovan J.L, Political Authority and European Community: The Challenge of the Christian Political Tradition,’ Scottish Journal of Theology, 1994

The Participatory Anthropic Principle, E:E-Journal, 2005@ http://home.btclick.com/scimah/

——————————————————————————–

[1] The Communication Initiative, Family Tree of Theories, Methodologies and Strategies in Development Communication: Convergences and Differences, 2005, p.1

[2] The Communication Initiative, Ibid, p.3

[3] L Hanson, C. Hanson, Transforming Participatory Facilitation: Reflections from Practice, E: E-Journal, 2001: 29-31

[4] Paraphrase of A. Boal, Theatre of the Oppressed, 1979

[5] J.L.O’Donovan, Political Authority and European Community: The Challenge of the Christian Political Tradition,’ Scottish Journal of Theology, 1994: 47

[6] S.C. Mott, A Christian Perspective on Political Thought, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 15ff, 157

[7] The Participatory Anthropic Principle, E:E-Journal, 2005@ http://home.btclick.com/scimah/ pp.1-3

[8] S. Melkote, Communication in the Third World: Theory and Practice, Sage Publications, New Delhi,/Newbury Park/London, 1991, p. 237

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