Relationship-building Activities

The list below is intended to stimulate your own thinking about relationship building. Some of these ideas will work for you while others will not seem appropriate. Stick with what feels right.

You will also note that many of the items on the list below have nothing to do with business. While business relationships can be built on purely business interests, personal connections are likely to build stronger bonds.

1. Send notes of congratulations. If you get in the habit of reading industry publications, you will become more aware of what your clients are doing.

2. Help someone’s family member with a job search. If job notices come across your desk, forward them to people who might be interested. Introduce the family member to a client of yours. Even if the client does not have a job for the individual, they can help the individual by providing contacts and other useful information about their industry.

3. Refer business to them. One of the best ways to generate business referrals is to make referrals yourself. Be sure that the referrals you make are “quality” referrals (quality as defined by the person who is getting the referral).

4. Introduce them to someone who can solve a problem they have. Perhaps they need a good computer consultant to help set up an office network or a good plumber to unclog their sewage line at home. Either way, referring good vendors to your contacts shows that you are resourceful.

5. Introduce them to someone who you think they should meet. Perhaps you know an accountant who does work for a company they are courting. The accountant can give them useful background information about the company. Maybe you know someone who has dealt with a similar business issue and might be willing to share his or her experience.

6. Participate in a charitable cause.

7. E-mail an article to them. Keep track of people’s interests in an electronic contact manager so you can match articles with people’s interests. Many online publications make it very easy for you to forward articles by e-mail. If you take the time to track people’s interests in your contact manager, you are more likely to remember that person when something of interest does come across your desk or your computer desktop.

8. Invite their comments on an article you are writing. If it makes sense, ask several people for feedback. You will end up with a better article and by asking, you will be communicating that you value their opinion.

9. Invite them to a sporting event. Make sure it is a sport that you like and a sport that the prospect likes.

10. Do great work for clients and celebrate any victories.

11. Send holiday gifts. When possible, try to make the gift personal or at least choose something you think the individual would like.

12. Invite them to a reception at your firm or ask them if they want to join you at someone else’s reception.

13. Ask about their spouse and children. A wedding ring is a good clue that they are married. If it feels appropriate, ask them what their spouse does. If you happen to be in their office, ask if the pictures on the walls are their kids.

14. Go on a dog walk together.

15. Lend them a book you enjoyed.

16. Co-author an article with them.

17. Invite them to participate on a panel with you.

18. Establish a common connection. Same school, town, common professional or personal contacts

19. Teach them something about a non-legal subject that you know something about (e.g., how to use a piece of office technology; good places to vacation in Ireland; how to find a reputable dog breeder).

20. Write a personal note on any form letters you send out.

21. Plan an activity with your children (if they have children the same age).

22. Send acknowledgments if you see that they are mentioned in the press.

23. Send congratulations on significant life events (e.g., births, weddings).

24. Send condolence cards when you learn about a death in their family. Most people will really appreciate this. It is unlikely that you would offend someone.

25. Recommend a good movie, book, play or other cultural activity.

26. Introduce them to a hobby or activity that you are passionate about.

27. Recruit them to participate in a nonprofit cause that interests you (make sure they seem genuinely interested).

28. Go out and celebrate with the client after settling a big case or closing a big deal.

29. Take the time to learn about their interests.

30. Mention their name as a source to a reporter.

31. Send them a brochure for a seminar that might interest them.

32. Tell them about a website that might be helpful or interesting to them.

33. Respond to business announcements they send out. People generally appreciate feedback after they send out a mailing, particularly if it is marketing literature. If you liked something about the mailing, let them know.

34. Send back comments about an article they have sent to you.

35. Follow up on a referral you made and ask how it turned out. If you think the person you referred actually followed up

36. Let them know about your significant life events.

37. Call the person you gave a referral to and ask them if the individual or company was able to help them.

38. Thank them for referrals and thank them again if the referral hires or does business with you (or keep them posted).

39. Invite them to your dance, piano or choral recital or the opening of your photography exhibit.

40. If a family member of theirs is sick, call to ask how the family member is doing.

41. Pay a condolence call if a parent dies and/or attend the funeral.

42. Come to their functions when they invite you.

43. Put all of your time on your bills and show a discount (or indicate “no charge” for certain activities).

44. Call or write to send compliments about something good you’ve seen or read about the company/client.

45. Start a discussion by e-mail about a common interest (e.g., politics, sports).

46. Attend a presentation that the contact makes and send a note or a comment about the presentation.

47. Find out what organizations they are involved in and join one that interests you.

If you make a point of trying to be helpful to the professionals in your network, your relationships will grow. Whether you use any of the suggestions above or find other ways to connect, relationship building will lead to business if you stick with it over a long period of time.

Video Match Stories

When it arrives to entertaining for me, you can’t get a lot better than participating in a great video clip recreation.
I have been a gamer for as very long as I can don’t forget, and for good explanation! It can be a great deal of enjoyable to decide a video game up and perform it and really dive into the tale and the people and see the place the tale goes. Even for video games that do not have much of a story, like the first Sonic the Hedgehog trilogy, it’s usually fun to me to play the sport and make up aspects to the tale, if I should, to make it more satisfying.

I’m the kind of guy, or at the very least was when I was young, that I could get a Sonic toy and go nuts earning all forms of adventures for him that countinued exterior of the primary game, and in a way I under no circumstances genuinely shed it. I can get pleasure from the game and place it down right after the story has come to its conclude, but I’ve normally been the variety of man that says “what occurs now?” Very well fortunately I am not the only just one who has an desire in continuing the story, for a large amount of the games I’m into have different publications and comics that carry on the place a particular activity story may possibly have still left off.

Or there may possibly even be a book that serves as a prequel to the principal sport that I may possibly have played, and that truly adds so much to the tale and would make the match additional enjoable to me.
I really like the fact that Sonic the Hedgehog, even though obtaining a whole lot of pleasurable game titles, has a great deal of other methods to get pleasure from the story and truly go the character over and above the game titles. I have comics of Sonic the Hedgehog that are pleasurable and increase so a lot to the activity tale. I also have Sonic toys, Sonic shirts and hats, and a DVD of the outdated Sonic cartoons.

It really is genuinely a blast to me, to see and get pleasure from the story in other strategies then just by enjoying the video games. The games are the purpose I like and want the other merchandise, but the simple fact that it is so great to me truly will help in my pursuit of these points. I have actually gotten into Tomb Raider lately, since of my new spouse, and I enjoy that not only does each individual match inform a terrific tale and is entertaining, but there is also publications series and comics that you can invest in and go through to assistance conect right with the story to hold it going.

Mass Outcome also is a series that I am a main lover of that has books, toys, and unique items that proceeds the story. And the list goes on and on.
A person issue that has usually stood fairly strongly with me is earning your individual story with the characters or athletes. For instance, I might just take my diecast NASCAR stock autos and make NASCAR the way I wished to, creating myself a driver and my pals along with me, and changing how the history appeared.

In addition to using toys I might also use my creativity and make matters the way I would like them, producing the characters and tale of Kingdom Hearts run into Sonic the Hedgehog and so on. But which is not all for me, specifically with a tiny assist. Video games like Little Large World for Playstation 3 give you the resources and skills to make not only your have characters, or kinds based on personal favorites like Sonic, but you can even engage in in worlds that are dependent on game titles like Tomb Raider or Sonic!

I am a Main enthusiast of that component, that you can essentially proceed your enjoy for a specific video clip activity outdoors its have online games. I have no difficulty savoring video video games for what they are and loving the tale, but I’ve normally preferred and been a huge fan of the activity continuing in some for or trend, so it is seriously enjoyment to know that there are books, toys, dresses, and even other video clip games that make that a probability.

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First Christmas By Alastair Macdonald – A Classic Is Born

A book review generally consists of a perusal of the writers style, the story line and the flow and the viability of the subject matter. That would be nearly impossible with Alastair Macdonalds First Christmas. Both the birth of Christ and the birth of Macdonalds book hold far too much for one brief review. Here is part one of two or perhaps three.

For Alastair Macdonald there would be no burning bush like the one Moses saw and there would be no blinding light such as the Apostle Paul experienced on the road to Damascus. All there would be is a gentle nudge between times and the knowledge that each barely perceptible nudge would lead him on a twenty five year course to write a single book that although very small would fill a huge chasm in the world. Every child and many adults will now have a bridge to cross from the ordinary events of the world to the extraordinary event that changed it forever.

British subject Alastair Macdonald resides on the glamorous and romantic Island of Bermuda. In 1985 he went looking for a simple rendition of the Bibles Christmas story to read to his two small children. Like most children Alastairs kids were fully enamored with all the extravagance of Christmas. Santa Claus, the gifts, the decorations and the ever present sounds of Christmas carols and hymns in the background kept his children bedazzled. But he wanted a book that would touch his childrens hearts with the very heart of the Christmas story.

Upon arriving back home Alastair felt disappointed and spoke with his wife about it and the surprise he felt at discovering the appalling lack of material that would tell the real story of Christmas. In the midst of the despair came the nudge. The gentle God given push would send him down a path that over the next several decades would lead to the birth of The First Christmas and a poem that would take its place along side classics like The Night Before Christmas.

In fact with The Night Before Christmas as his model he started out to find a way to tell the story. He wanted to engage classic poetic timing but apply some of the rhyming fun of Dr. Seuss. Accomplishing such a combination without sacrificing any of the dignity and seriousness of the birth of Christ would be no easy task. In the end he chose what is known as anapestic tetrameter for the rhythm in the poem. That rare fact takes nothing away from the simple flow of the narrative which will intrigue both child and adult.

Who would be the narrator of the story, this was the first challenge. Should it be Mary or Joseph, the obvious choices? With another gentle nudge Alastair decided on a narrator not so close to the story and one who would appeal to every child in the world, the donkey. The very donkey that helped Joseph in his daily carpentry work and finally carried Mary on her long journey to Bethlehem to give birth to the most powerful yet most humble human being to ever grace the planet earth. With a solid Old Testament name like Zeke from the Hebrew (Yechezqel) meaning God strengthens or better known by its English equivalent, Ezekiel, the story would now begin.

Having never written poetry before Alastair labored in vain for a few years and never moved beyond the first verse. But the nudging of God persisted and each year he would pull out the poem and endeavor to write a few more lines. It became somewhat of a joke in the Macdonald household and each year his children would again remark Dads writing his poem again.

Using rhyming dictionaries would prove lumbering and inhibiting until Alastair found an online rhyming dictionary. Inspiration is kinetic and the instant comparisons an online dictionary provided would also make the difference. Now the research could keep up with the nudges and the narrative would emerge. The story began to blossom and in a matter of only weeks started to bust out into a full fledged poem.

All through the many edits and revisions another portent was looming, who would publish the poem. Getting poetry published has more setbacks than anyone could imagine. To begin most publishers wont take a work from an author who is not already published nor has an agent. Over the transom (randomly submitted) works are like casting your bread upon the waters only much less productive. The unsolicited manuscript may never be reviewed at all or even returned if it is not wanted. A simple acknowledgement from a traditional publisher can take from three months to a year. Few publishers are interested in a book with a religious theme especially one with such a well known and often repeated theme such as the birth of Christ.

Even while making a few submissions Alastair was undaunted and began a quest to find an illustrator for the book. This too would become a protracted effort but the giver of Alastairs nudges was nudging someone else a world away to help with The First Christmas. Macdonald ignored the fact that most publishers like to choose their own illustrators and the end product is that we can be glad that he did.

Alastairs daughter, an accomplished artist, tried to help her dad with some illustrations in the style of the thirteenth century Italian mural artist Giotto. Feeling that the renderings of the characters looked too cartoonish left Alastair nearly in despair. With nothing left to lose he put the word nativity into an internet search engine and clicked. Over a half million images and days of searching and then one single artist caught Alastairs eye.

The art of Egyptian born Adel Nassief leaped from the screen into Alastairs vision for The First Christmas and he knew he had found the right illustrator. Nassief, a Coptic Christian from
Alexandria Egypt made his living painting and creating Coptic murals for Orthodox churches around the world. Much of his work is done in bright tempura paint and gold leaf. With communications limited to only emails Alastair and Adel came to an agreement. He would produce some twenty pictures in the traditional manner with tempura and gold leaf on wooden boards.

Communicating only by emails and photos Alastair had never actually seen Adels original work until Adel had deliver some pictures to a Coptic Church in Dallas Texas. Since the writer has an apartment in Dallas they arranged for the originals to be included in a container bound for the Dallas church. Alastair said he was blown away when he first set eyes on the original art pieces. Adel had outdone himself and every expectation Alastair ever had of him!

Now with both the pictures and the poem he made a mock book and began distributing it to various publishers. The responses improved but still no one wanted a seasonal book. Back to square one.

In 2007 Alastair approached Welcome Books, a publisher of picture books but mostly for adults. Not having heard from them he had a chance to visit their publishing house while returning from holiday and staying overnight in a New York hotel right near Welcomes office. After meeting with Lena Tabori the principle of Welcome Books and a general perusal by a ninety year old artist who was present at the meeting the wheels were in motion. In a short time another meeting was scheduled in which plans were finalized and the rest is history.

From simple nudges to the convergence of author, poetry, Coptic artist, experienced publisher and 25 years of being persistent, something has been born. It is the birth of something that is about the birth of someone. The birth of Jesus Christ has changed our world irreversibly and now the birth of Alastair Macdonalds The First Christmas will be a part in that change going onward until the end of time. Until the end of time the good news will always be broadcast and now Alastair Macdonald and Zeke will always have a part in the telling of the wonderful news first proclaimed by angels.

And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. (Luke 2:10, 11)

Relationship Advice for Dummies – 5 Things Never to Say in the Bedroom

Men looking to spice things up in the bedroom – without studying a manual for hours or potentially pulling a muscle – may want to give a little hot talk a chance. Sure, not all women (or men for that matter) want to feel like they are starring in an adult film, but a few well-timed, enticing phrases might just push her over the edge. On the other hand, overdoing it can have the opposite effect, so a little restraint is also in order. Here are a few of the dos and don’ts of pillow talk, along with some tips for keeping the male organ healthy and clean, because only the talk in the bedroom should be dirty.

What Not to Say

– Let’s ditch the latex barriers: In the heat of the moment is not the time to have a discussion about ditching the protection. It doesn’t matter if it feels better, makes it better, or just looks better – the latex barrier talk is one to have with the clothes on, when everybody is thinking straight. End of story.

– The C-word, or other negative terms: Sure, adult films may make it seem like a good idea, but telling one’s girlfriend she is a dirty b, or calling her lady bits the c-word, is only good for one thing: stopping the action. Most women are highly offended by the use of such derogatory terms and will instantly shut down the love boat. Unless she has made it clear that she likes rough language like this, skip it.

– Excessive description: It’s pillow talk, she gets it, but there is a fine line between saying something feels good and using 12 dirty adjectives plus 4 unique descriptors for the male and female parts. Sometimes, less is more.

– Overly flowery statements: Again, comparing her lady bits to the sweet nectar of the rising sun is in no way turn-on for most women. It is either going to make her laugh, or roll her eyes, or just decide a guy is full of it call it a day.

– That doesn’t feel good: Of course she wants to do things the right way for her man, but telling her she’s bad at something is probably going to send her out the door. Instead of criticizing, say, “It feels even more amazing this way,” while demonstrating the action in question. She will likely be happy to comply.

What to say

– She looks hot: Women can feel insecure about their bodies during intimate encounters, so make sure she knows she looks fantastic. Tell her she is hot, beautiful, a goddess or whatever else feels natural. However, be sure to vary the compliments; being told she’s, “so hot” over and over and over again will start to lose its meaning and get downright annoying.

– What is working in bed: If there is a move that is working, don’t be afraid to tell her; she likes positive feedback that lets her know she is doing great. Likewise, it can never hurt to tell her how hot it would be to try that new position; however, if she says no, respect it and move on, because forcing the issue is only going to eject one from the bedroom.

– Her name: Most women are turned on by the sound of their name coming from a place of passion. Just be sure to moderate it, unless she is reciprocating; shouting her name 50 times in a row is irritating- and particularly embarrassing if she has a roommate.

– That he could go all night long: Sure, it’s impractical if there is work the next morning – and the statement may not even be true — but letting her know how big of a turn-on she is and that intimacy with her is amazing and could go on forever will get her going.

– What she wants in bed: Letting her know that he is willing to fulfill any desire she has will get the creative juices flowing and help her feel she is in charge, which is an empowering feeling in the bedroom.

Keeping the male organ healthy

Getting a little dirty in the bedroom is one thing – after all, that is what showers are for – but coming into the bedroom dirty is entirely another. She wants a clean, fresh-smelling man coming into those freshly laundered sheets, not a stinky man that makes her wonder what on earth he was doing today, and whether or not she wants his hands on her. In order to be the former, always follow up every shower with an application of male organ health cream (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil) containing odor-fighting vitamin A. Simply apply after the shower and stay fresher, longer; and as a bonus, the rich mix of vitamins and amino acids can improve the overall look, feel and sensitivity level of the skin.

Visit for more information about treating common male organ health problems, including soreness, redness and loss of male organ sensation. John Dugan is a professional writer who specializes in men’s health issues and is an ongoing contributing writer to numerous online web sites.

How A Rebound Relationship Can Help You Win Your Ex Back

You still love your ex but you realize that he/she is dating someone else. What should you do now? How can you get your ex back?

It is normal to worry. But fret not! Your ex may be involved in a rebound relationship. This means you still have a chance to get your ex back.

So, what exactly is a rebound relationship?

Well, a rebound relationship has certain tell tale sign. If he/she is already dating someone else shortly after your break up, there is a possibility that it is a rebound relationship.

People usually get involved in rebound relationship after a break up in an attempt to forget the love of their life. They are making use of this rebound relationship to numb their pain so to speak.

Unfortunately, this is usually a form of denial. Eventually, the person involved in the rebound relationship will wake up and realized that they don’t really love their rebound partner.

That’s why when your ex is involved in a rebound relationship; it may be to your advantage. Why? Well, your ex is involved in a rebound relationship because of you! Eventually, your ex will realize that you are the one he/she truly loves. He/she will realize how important you are.

The point here is, a rebound relationship don’t last for long. Some may last for a few weeks. Some may take slightly longer. But the conclusion is usually the same. The person involved in the rebound will realized that he/she cannot forget his/her ex. This means you do not need to worry too much if you know your ex is in a rebound relationship.

Effectively Managing the Clients and Customers

The buzz word for all businesses around the world today is customer. -Customer is the King– is being taught to each businessman. If you have to make profits, you should know how to manage a customer. You should not only maintain your existing customers but also regularly make new ones.

How? Technology has an answer for this as well – Client Relationship Management Software or Customer Relationship Management Software – no matter what you call it, it does wonders in your profits by making your customer management an asset for your company. .

What is CRM Software?

Customer Relationship Management Software is enterprise software that helps you add technology and make your customer data and customer interactions systematic and organized. CRM Tool manages everything related to your customer from Sales Force automation, marketing, appointments to customer service and support. It basically integrates all your customer data in single software.

There are many companies offering Client Relationship Management software. Some of the leaders in the market are SAP AG, Oracle, Talygen,, Microsoft etc.

Why CRM Tool?

The big question is why you should spend money on buying a Customer Relationship Management Software for your company. Some of the reasons are:

To identify and target your best customers

It helps in forming an individual relationship with the customer

To manage the marketing campaigns

To provide the employees necessary information about the customers

As it keeps all the information handy, it saves time

It makes the information easy to use

It keeps the information safe

It helps in faster lead generation

It simplifies goal setting

It helps to offer a better customer service and satisfaction

It helps in improving marketing efforts

It helps to generate more profit than earlier

Attributes of a good CRM Software

Before buying CRM software, you should assess the various options available to you in the market and then choose the best one for you. The best option is to get a customized Customer Relationship Software. If you are buying one, keep in mind the following things:

It should be easy to use with a user friendly interface.

It should be fast

It should be affordable

It should be relevant for your company

So, go ahead and choose the best one for your company.

For more information about CRM software visit us at

Am I Ready For A Relationship To End

Most of the emphasis regarding the question, “am I ready for a relationship?” is placed on the front end, or start, aspect. Equally important, however, is giving appropriate consideration to the issue of if and/or when a relationship should end. This is an especially significant deliberation when the relationship concerned includes abuse of any kind – physical, mental, emotional – and is uninfluenced by the degree of abuse involved – slight, moderate, severe.

Men are most frequently tabbed as entertaining subliminal dreams of playing a hero’s role. But, ocassionally, women feel compelled to make sacrificial decisions, particularly if the circumstances involve attempts to save a relationship. No relationship is 100% harmonious and conflict-free. What is important is how differences and issues are handled by the partners. Is there maturity, respect, rational dialogue, genuine affection? Or is there temper tantrums, intimidation, shouting and screaming, caustic insults? As you reflect upon the nature of the interactions between you and your mate, if more of the latter actions prevail, perhaps it is time to earnestly ponder, “am I ready for a relationship to end?”

As a relationship deteriorates, if abuse has been present in some form and to some degree, then the abuse will typically increase and intensify as the partnership worsens. Very often, as the relationship sours, one or both partners allows the other to belittle them, demean them, and generally make his or her life miserable. Sadly, the torment is double-edged as the decision of prolonging or ending the relationship is debated in one’s mind. As the hero’s sacrifice intensifies, so can the illusion that everything wrong can be made right, thus making a decision to end the partnership even less likely.

Women have a particularly difficult time choosing to break free and end abusive relationships. The hopes and dreams, ideals and expectations that have been developed and nurtured through puberty and maturity seem to form an illusion, a fantasy that is extremely difficult for them to see through and comprehend. But that is exactly what needs to occur.

Relationships involving abusive males are one-way love affairs from her to him, and one-way love affairs never survive. The further irony is that the love involved is not actually directed toward the abusive man in the relationship, but toward the illusion image that the woman has formed in her mind and that she has associated with that man.

There are two possible solutions to resolving an abusive relationship. One option is for the abusive partner, usually the male, to suddenly see the error of his ways and miraculously turn away from his previous pattern of malicious behavior. Then, led by his new-found enlightenment, transform into the ideal sweetheart imagined by his mate. As you can probably imagine, the odds of your winning a super lottery are better than this occurring. Yet this choice is exactly the gamble that most women bet upon.

The other wiser, though more difficult to implement, option is to answer the impending question, “am I ready for a relationship to end?” with a resounding “Yes!” And the best way, probably the only way, of achieving that end successfully, is by putting the head in charge of the operation while demoting the heart!

If you find yourself in the position of wanting and needing to act affirmatively on the issue, “am I ready for a relationship to end,” then I urge you to seek and apply the ample advice and guidance and support that is available to help you to make it happen!

About The Author: Jay (DateMate) Nelson writes from well over 50 years of dating and relationship experience. He’s been happily married to his third wife for over 36 years now, and they enjoy 6 children, 15 grandchildren and 5 great-grandchildren. Read more relationship advice from the Relationship Learning Center at



Ever since his first play in 1988, Where there.s a will , Witch was rooted in the Gujrati familial dynamic , Dattani has in a sense chronicled the follies and prejudices of Indian society as reflected with in the microcorm of the family unit , The most tangible and dynamic reality in middle class Indian lives , Dattani calls the play an -exorcism of the patriarchal code- ( Dattani , 2000 : 4 49 ) and skillfully works his narrative around the intrigues and me of a dysfunctional Indian family ,, The play is set with in the conferies of four rooms two bedrooms , The living room and the derigueus dining room . In performance . Where there.s a will works with subtle contours that are handleld def——– , Not with standing the fact that this is Dattani;s first play . With family relationships as the focus of dramatic representation , Dattani;s handling of the performance space suggests to his audiences the vartations in signification allotted to ostensible simple . Through the connobuted design of the will , The relationships between the four main protagonist of a joint family are painfully twisted as the play begings to come alive in performance . this is a play where – Traditional ‘ family values clash with un experted twists in the tale that completely subvert exiting sterotypes . The story revolves around a supposedly – self made ‘ industrialist, Hasmukh Mehta, the patriarch who is the supreme malcontent with the typical problems of familial expectations, his lest less wife Sonal and a colourless conjugal life, his spend thrift son Ajit, and a u—— and conniving daughter in law Preeti, and last but hardly the lest, his mistress Kiran Jhaveri. All the four belie their names. Hasmukh is a dour – faced man who seems unable to smile, Sonal hardly shines, Ajit is not in the lest successful in his father’s eyes, and Preeti is as unaffectionate as Hashmukh is sour. And yet they are family , yoked together with in choice in the matter, and must function as a unit under the patriarchal order. Hasmukh – When I was twenty one, the greatest tragedy of my life took place, I got married – – The following year Ajit was born. Tragedy after tragedy – – – – ( 464 ) His son is a -nincompoo – He has not a single quality I look for in a son: He has made an my entire life worthless – – – It won’t be long before everything I worked for and achieved will be destroyed ! ” Immediately out side the family units stands Kiran, Hasmukh’s mistress, invisible until yhe patriarch dies and his will places her at the centre of the action. The highly dissatisfied Hasmukh is decidedly unhappy with the manner his life has been spent with no one living up to his expectations, the way he had lived up to his father’s. He must therefore get back at his family and teach them a protracted lesson. It is only by way of the will that he would attempt to tackle all these obstacles that he has been unable to correct with in his life time. Dattani works this out with the help of his extremely self – reflexive t—– – where Hasmukh speaks more to the audience directly then with any of the other protagonists, taking them into confidence. The play piquantly sketches his domineering patriarch who would revenge himself upon his – awaricious ‘ family by virtually cutting them out of his will, something they will discover only after his death. The colourless relationships between the two couples that comprise the family are developed in elaborate vignettes, portraying two singularly unexciting generations of couples sexually insipid and loveless, who remain in a typically materialistic and money – oriented upper middle – class mi– Ajit has b–.. to stand up to his father, taking it for granted that the inheritance is already his, and fiercely resists Hasmukh’s attempts at ( moulding ) him in his own model. While Sonal is proud of her son, her husband thinks he is a disaster, and Preeti, his wife is even worse. But he admits that she is clever, the only person who is a little wary of in the play, with a measure of justification. Kiran Jhaveri ,the epitome of the Dattani woman makes her appearance in the very first play that he wrote Smart ,Shrewd, calculating and worldly wise. Kiran embodies qualities that Dattani staunchly holds a positive and strong and necessary for a woman. Like most women who play gendered roles. Kiran is a victim too, but one who refuses to stay victimized. She becomes part of Hasmukh’s life with her eyes wide open, and aware of the benefits that she will derive from the relationship. A –. Is a part of her existence too, as she reveals to Ajit -I got a husband, my husband got his booze, and your father go – – – well, you know .- (491) Hasmukh Mehta excercises hegemonic power over the rest of his family to perpetuate his own conception of the self, which, he has in turn, received from his father. He meets with resistance at all point from the other members of his family -You still want to play Big Boss. And you can do it through me. In short, you want me to be you.-(460) says Ajit, and Hasmukh devices the means to continue this hegemony even from the grave. The will, here, becomes the iconic instrument to power and shapes and reshapes the destiny of the family relationships after his death. But the irony is that Hasmukh, to give the devil his due, transfers this controlling power to a woman and changes the entire fabric of the monolith that he is trying to preserve, immediately opening up the spaces the individual identity that he has all along sought to deny, death eases the pain of living says Hasmukh’s ghost -It feels good to be dead. No more kidney problems, no backaches, no heart beats – – — ( 479) Dattani explore some existantian augst here – What is this? A sandalwood garland? – – – when my father died, I used to put fresh flowers everyday for a whole month – – – ( takes a final look at his picture ) so that is how the world will remember me. Until my son looks me up in a trunk – – ( 487- 88 ) Where There Is a Will ( 1988 ) is a comedy with slight farcical touches which yet makes a point about the way patriarchal men invariably fail to exist as true human beings. The plot of this play revolves around the life of a man named Hasmukh Mehta. Who is a rich and successful businessman and his family. The action starts with Hasmukh having come home from office. Overhearing his twenty three year old son and Joint Managing Director of his form complaning about his father’s refusal to invest in new business ventures thought up by him. In a series of straight addresses or asides to the audience. Hasmukh. Classifies that he had thrown away his son Ajit’s project proposals unread because -If I Iet him have his way, we would all be panpers. Ajit, he plaintively adds – was bankrupt up here ( points to his head ) the day he was born. God just forgot to open an account for him.- Neither does Hasmukh have any love to spare for his wife Sonal or for his daughter – in – law Preeti whom he succinctly describes as – pretty, charming, graceful and sly as a snake- and sums her up as a girl who – has an eye on my money.- In course of scene, we learn that Hasmukh is a diabebtic and cardiac patient with a history of – high blood pressure, high cholesterol – (and ) an enlarged heart.- And all this goes towards explaining why towards the end of the first scene, he dies in bed where his wife discovers his dead body a few minutes later This is not the beginning of a tragedy however, for Hasmukh’s ghost lingers on in the house, wandering through its walls ( and occasionally setting cross – leggerd on the dining table ) keeping on passing acerbic comments on the actions band attitudes of the other (living ) characters, though unheard by, and invisible to, them comically, even a member of the audience is not spared Hasmukh’s ghost’s not – so —-. Criticism, for at one point soon after he has passed away and assumed the role of a mock- chorus his ghost sprawls on the dining table and dangles head and arums over its edge in imitation of swinging upside down from a tamarind tree, and points to a spectator in the auditorium and tells him sternly – your shoes need polishing.- The central issue of the comedy its complication – however emerges in its second scene in which it is revealed that none of his expectant family members have inherited his money, for what Hasmukh Mehta has done is to fform a Trust to be administered over by his former mistress Kiran Jhaveri as the Trustee. Infact, according to the terms of Mehta’s will, not only will his son not inherit his father’s money and property until he is forty -five but he will also have to compulsorily attend office everyday from 9 to 6 and remain under the official tutelage of Mrs. Jhaveri. And finally and most insulting to all the members of the family Mehta’s will stipulates that his former mistress will move in and live in his family till the Trust be dissolved twenty two years hence. All this point to the thesis of the play, which is the patriarchal dominance of Hasmukh Mehta both in the course of his life and after. As Ajit confesses after his father’s death -Even since I was a little boy, you have been running my life. Do this do that or don’t do that, do this. Was I scared of you!- Or as Preeti, the daughter in law, tells Ajit -he was a slave driver, your father! He almost drove me mad with his bossy nature. He succeeded with your mother- Even Kiran, the man’s mistress, confesses to his wife at a candid moment u -He was so insensitive to other people’s needs – yes. Mrs. Mehta. My father, your husband – they were g weak men with false strength – will the scars our parents lay on us remain forever- w h The truth that emerges finally is that Hasmukh Mehta had wanted his son to live in his own image, just as he had lived his own life in thrall to his father’s shadow : Kiran I should have hated him. Like I should have hated my father, my brothers and my husband. But all I felt for him was pity. Hasmukh (As a ghost ) Enough: I say, enough: I paid you to do my work. Not ridicule me! Kiran: Even his attempts at ruling over you after his death, through his will, are pathetic ( Hasmukh sticks his fingers into his ears and shuts his eyes ) The only reason he wanted to do that is because his father had ruled over his family. All his life he was being a good boy to his father. Sonal: How little I know him. If I had understood his when he was alive, I would have died laughing. (510) It emerges too that Mrs. Sonal Mehta had lived her life under the total dominance of her sister Minal, who always -decided what we should wear, what games we should play- and -Even at my husband’s f–. – – sat beside me and told me when to cry.- But to the play is not yet over, for in a surprise twist at the end it is revealed that Preeti had actually hastened, if not caused, the death of her father-in-law. Kiran holds this truth against Preeti, not to blackmail her, but to achieve a proper comic resolution by which the wife bonds wife the husband, and the family bonds with Kiran and the Ghost of Hasmukh leaves the house forever. Kiran : No, they are not. These are your father- in- law’s tablets. They controlled his blood pressure. They kept him alive. (Shows her the tablets in her other hand ). These are your vitamins. Now I’ll mix them up. ( Mixes them and throws them on the bed ) can you tell the difference? No, you can’t. unless you look very close. The companies names are embossed on the tablets. But a person who is used to taking them every day will not look so close (Studies Preeti, who is trembling now) The tablets you throw out of the window where the ones for high blood pressure. The tablets I found on his dressing table were your – – – Vitamins (Preeti starts sobbing) When did you exchange them? Oh, you could have done it any time. You had plenty of opportunity. He was right – you are very clever.Of course you didn’t kill him. You just let nature do the work for you. Were you so impatient? Couldn’t you want a few more years? Oh, I’m glad he made his will ! you don’t deserve any of his money. Each of the family members having discovered his or her own identity finally separate from Hasmukh over whelming self. All of them cheer to that. Hasmukh enters. But he stops at the doorway. The others continue a light animated coversation. Hasmukh . No, I don’t think I can enter this house. It isn’t mine – – more. I will rest permanently on the tamarind tree. ( Laughter at the table ) They are not my family any more. I wish I had never interfered with their lives. They look quite happy together. With Kiran Sitting in my place. Oh, I wish I had been more – I wish I had lived ( Exists ) Sonal : Oh, by the way, Aju, I wanted to tell you our neighbours complained today. Our tamarind tree is over—— and abstracts their electric wires. Why don’t you have it trimmed ? Where There is a Will is quite evidently a young man’s play which shows fairly optimistically that there is a way by which men and women can find happiness on their own terms. The developments, twists and surprises in the action are not however not facilely based on contrivances of plotting alone but for more appropreately on human motivations and wills. Each of the characters also develops Ajit ( or Aju as his mother fondly calls him ) is first projected through his father’s unsympathetic eyes as a mother’s darling and an ineffectual, nincompoop – an estimation which even his wife seems to share – but is then shown to have resisted and even won, in however infinitesimal a way, against his father in the battle of wills. Mrs. Mehta who had lived and suffered so long under the dominance of her husband and her sister, is shown to come into her own at the end of the play. Kiran : Wrong. I learnt my lesson from being so close to life. I learnt my lesson from watching my mother tolerating my father when he came home everyday with bottles of sum wrapped up in news paper. As I watched him beating her up and calling her name. I learnt what life was when my mother pretended she was happy in front of me and my brother, so that we wouldn’t hate my father. And I learnt when I kept my mother away from my father, so that in return he would remain silent for those three hours when he came home, and before he fell asleep on the dining table, to drunk to harm us anymore. I served him those drinks, waiting for that moment when he would become unconscious and I would say a prayer – – Thank God he was too drunk to impose himself on us ! yes, Mrs. Mehta. My father, your husband – they were weak men with false strength. While Kiran Jhaveri finds the happiness that had so long eluded her in her past existence as a business executive cum – mistress to a rich man and as daughter to a drunkard and wife to another. The liberation of these characters from the strange hold of their past is of course also the defeat of Hasmukh Mehta. This domineering husband, heavy father and tyrannical boss is gradually dwarfed and diminished to the point of insignificance. Of course he never quite loses our sympathy for he is given an engaging, comic vitality and verse ( both in the flesh as well as a spectra) but we can not help being unused when we hear that his erstwhile family has made plans to cut down the tamarind tree in the garden – his last terrestia haunt. The truth underlying the comedy is serious enough, the man who would rule over his family ever after his death is exposed at the end to be what he really was – comitragic weak ling who had constantly quested for a father- substitute, a man who was rude to everyone because he was e insecure himself, an unfaithful husband who didn’t really want a mistress – – – [but] a woman who would father him.- The so-called -Thesis Play- in which a well – made plot provides opportunities to the characters to interact and to illustrate through their relationship the dramatist’s idea is of course as old as Ibsen. That Dattani draws upon and exploits the resources of this convention of theatrical is manifest in the way Preeti’s substitution of her vitamin pills in the bottle of her father- in – law’s blood pressure tablets is discovered through a series of logical steps. Preeti’s frustration at not having inherited Hasmukh’s money leads her to abuse her husband and subsequently to burnt into tears. Ajit’s concern about the well being of his pregnant wife leads him to book for tranquillizers and he comes upon his father’s tablets in Preeti’s vitamin – pill bottle. Preeti cleverly seems her husband away from the room before he can inspect the tablets and throws them away together with the bottle out of the window, only to see Kiran pick them up below. Ajit still looking for the tranquillizers finds the tablets his father used to take for his blood pressure ( in reality Preeti’s ineffectual vitamin pills ) and leaves them on the dressing table in Hasmukh -s ( now Karan’s ) bedroom. Later, Kiran comes across this bottle compares its contents with the tablets in the bottle she had picked up, and deduces Preeti’s dead of substitution. – Kiran ( shows her the tablets ) What are these ? ( No response ) you should know. You threw them out of window. Don’t deny it ! I saw you. Preeti – Oh those. These are my vitamins. Kiran – Are they ? Preeti – Yes Kiran – Are you sure ? Preeti – Yes Kiran – Why did you throw them out of the window ? Preeti – I didn’t need them any more. Kiran – So these are your vitamins, are they Prity (weakly ) – yes.- Yet, what adds a new freshness to the old way of the thesis play is the sparkle of the dialogues and the text we of its presentation. To cite an example, here is the dead Hasmukh contemplating his photograph, put up by his son in a – conspricuous place.- What’s this ? A sandalwood garland ? Don’t I get fresh flowers everyday ? when my father died, I used to put fresh flowers on his photograph everyday for a whole month before getting a sandalwood garland. I wonder what became of his photograph ? It was much bigger than this one. I also had it touched up to make look more – – – dignified. Of course, I don’t need help in that department. These cheeks are toohollow. The lips are too tight. ( stares for a while, them to the audience, seriously ) I don’t have such mean little eyes, do I ? My father had. Thirty wears of living in the city and he got mean little eyes. Now where did that photograph of his go ?I had taken it down when the walls were repainted. It’s locked up in some trunk some where. I suppose ( Takes a final look at his picture ) so that’s it. This is how the world will remember me. Until my son locks me up in a trunk. ( Turns to Ajit ) Then all that remains of me is ( points to Ajit ) That’ ( pause ) This calls for some fresh air. I think I’ll go out side and swing on the tamarind tree. Upside down, t—— clear my head. (Exits through the main door ) ( 487 – 88 ) The first thing that strikes about this speech is that it possesses a typically Indian flavour in its references to fresh flowers, sandalwood, garland, trunk and tamarind tree. The rather typical carping of the urbanized and more materially successful son ( even though dead ) about a rustic dehati father comer out in the lines- I – – – ha it touched up to make him look more – – – dignified- and – thirty years of living in the city and he got mean little.- Some other dialogues in the play have an almost w——- hue of wit, as in Kiran’s – useful. What a useful thing to be. ) But what is far more innovative and original on the part of Dattani as a dramatist is his use of the injected dialogues of Hasmukh which, through unheard by the other characters, introduce a further dimension of implication for the benefit of the audience. Kiran – He was just like his father, wasn’t he ? Hasmukh – No, I wasn’t Sonal – Yes. He was Hasmukh – Don’t contradict me, woman ! Kiran – The same bossy nature ? Sonal – ( together ) No ! Hasmukh Yes ! Kiran – Did he ever disgrace with his father ! Sonal ( together ) No ! Hasmukh Yes ! Kiran – Did he ever do anything at all without consulting his father first ? Sonal ( together ) No, never ! Hasmukh Yes always ! (509 ) Superficially comic and evocative of laughter, this finitely embodies a kind of dialogic strategy in that we are privileged to hear two contradictory statements about the same person. Un like the Bakhtinian model of the dialogic in which there exists – a plurality of independent and unmerged voices and consciousnesses, a genuine polyphony of fully valid voices-. We are of course expected to em——– with Sonal here is, in other words, ironic. But the device of an apparition’s dialogues accomplishing the irony is also an extension and a radical one, of the older tradition of having a character say something in an aside and then of showing him to do or say something in an aside and then of showing him to do or say something contrary in the presence of other characters. In any case, Dattani’s use of visible / invisible, audible / inaudible ghost significantly pushes back the accepted borders of naturalistic drama. In Where There’s a Will, we meet characters drown from two generations, the father and the mother in Hasmukh and Sonal Mehta, and Ajit their son and his wife Preeti. Hasmukh is not happy about the prodigal behaviour of his son and also with the vain glorious attitude of his wife, Sonal. What he expects is implicit obedience to him, as he practiced it in his father’s case. When things drift away from his control he thinks of a checkmate. He creates a trust and appoints his mistress Kiran Jhaveri its trustee. This move renders all the members of the family to the position of pensioners. Even after his death. Hasmukh haunts his houseas a ghost.The evil of patriarchy take centre stage in this play. Dattami covertly asserts that where there is a will there is a way. Dattani’s dramatic art has been appreciated for its fine fabric of philosophic undertone and social consciousness. The philosophic reflections on the predicament of human destiny against the odds of socio- cultural practices, impart an exceptional depth and richness to his plays. However, Where There is a Will is a positive justification to the observation that Dattani’s genius is equally fertile both in comic plays and serious plays. The comic mode has even have a far reaching effect than tragedy. It is predicted – Satire, irony, gallous, humour and other mutations of the comic spirit will be the guiding force of over theatre in the coming years and tragedy has little to offer to a rebellious generation obsessed by the danger of the mega- deaths.” The play Where there is a will is a comic caricature with the family as a local. The focus of the dramatic is on the issues like gender discrimination and the domination of patriarchal authority. The dramatic structure. The setting of the play, verbal repartee and incongruity in human behaviour makes play a fine entertainment. Sita Raina, a well know Delhi based actress and theatre director writes in the note of the play. – Where There’s a Will as several interesting aspects. Mahesh described it as the exorcism of the patriarchial code. Women- be it daughter- in- law, wife or mistress. are dependent on men and this play shows what happens when they are pushed to the edge. What interested me particularly was its philosophical twist. To be the watcher of one’s a will, has control over his family through his money and forgoes on opportunity improve his interpersonal relationships. As do most of us. Consequently, when he became the watcher of his actions, he perceives that his desire for control head led him to be the victim of his own machinations unlike Kiran who uses powers play to essentially improve her relationship. The play is originally set in Gujarati family, but since I was not familiar with that millierr, Mahesh agreed to localizing it.- Besides, the ease and brilliance of dialogue, the straight expontion of action, provide better opportunity for the direct communication between the audience and the actors. Mahesh Dattani describes it as the exorcism of patriarchal code. Sita Raina, the well known theatre direction appreciated it for its -philosophical twist’ because Dattani efficiently manipulates the incidents for self enlightenment to expose the illusion of false authority. He promotes the idea that the passion for power and domination signifies the insecurity of an individual. One can nourish the dream of dominating others for a short while but the fact is well known that each individual fames his own dreams of life and their essential spirit can never be checked. – What interested me particularly was its philosophical twist. To be the watchers of one’s self is to make intelligent charges in this life. In Where There is a Will Hasmukh has control over his family through his money and forges the opportunity to improve his interpersonal relationship. As do most of us. When he became the watcher of his actions, he perceives that his desire for control had led him to be the victim of his own Machination – -.- The humour in the play through the visible and invisible presence of Hasmukh, especially after his appearance as a Ghost, his mute observations and the free display of the inner feelings of different characters against the authority of Hasmukh, is a unique device for self-assessment for the characters. The central action in the play Where There is a Will take place in the lavish house of Hasmukh Mehta. There are three spaces : dinning room cum living room, bed room of Husmukh Mehta and Sonal Mehta, and the decorated room of Ajat, their son and Preeti, his wife.

Act I (1) The lavish house of Hasmukh Mehta. There are three spaces, the fancy dining cum living room, the bedroom belonging to Hasmukh and Sonal Mehta and the hideously trendy bedroom, of their son, Ajit and his wife Preeti. Ajit is in the living room, talking on the Phone. Preeti is drifting in and out of the kitchen, loading the table with food for dinner. She is pregnant, Hasmukh enters through the main door with his walking stick. Each character in the play provides an appropriate foil to his/her counter part. If Hasmukh is dictatorial type husband, his wife Sonal is a submissive housewife dedicated to the choices of her husband. Business world is dominated by Hasmukh, Sonal occupies the space in kitchen and Pooja room. -Hasmukh There’s enough here to feed an elephant’s family! Sonal it’s all right for you say that, you are on a died. But what about our growing son. He needs proper nourishment. Hasmukh (scoffing) Growing son ! I tell you we are all getting enough nourishment. There’s no need to make parathas. Sonal. May be you are getting enough. I’m making them for Aju (Moves towards kitchen again) Hasmukh wait : (Sonal stops) I say there’s no need to make parathas Sonal – Aju wants them Hasmukh – He does not Sonal – How do you Know? Hasmukh – I know my son better than you know him. Sonal – Oh. So now I don’t know my own son. What makes you so sure you know him? Hasmukh – I don’t. But I know he doesn’t want parethas right now.- The similar contrast is seen in Preeti and Ajit. He is weak and insignificant in presence of his father but Preeti is calculative to observe all activities of the household. -Hasmukh (Applauds). Well done! Preeti (Coming to the landing) what’s the matter? Sonal – He’s gone! Preeti – Oh no, don’t say that. He may come home late, but he won’t run away or anything like that Sonal – Who – – What? Preeti – Look, there’s no needs to get worried. If you want, I’ll call Deepak and find out whether Aju is there with Him Sonal – (Hysterically) No! I don’t mean him! His father. He gone! Preeti – Gone where? Sonal (Screaming) Don’t you understand? He’s – – gone ! Preeti slowly understands. Screech of tyros and the sound of a car coming to a halt. In the mean time, Preeti confirms that Halmukh is dead, she comes down to the landing stops and screams. Ajit comes rushing in. Ajit – what’s the matter? Preeti, Your father. He’s – – gone Ajit – (moves towards them) what! The two women start sobbing. Lights fade out on them. Spotlight pricks up Hasmukh or rather his ghost he stands arms akimbo. And for the first time in the play, he grins form ear to ear.- Hasmukh Mehta exercises hegemonic power over the rest of his family members to perpetuate his own conception of -self’ which he has in turn received from his father. He does not allow Ajit to speak to government officials or to discuss business matters with his friends. His aboo—.. authority over his business, house and other articles is amazing and ridiculous. -Ajit (on the phone) Five lakhs that’s all. Give me Five lakhs and I’ll modernize the whole bloody plant. That’s what I tell my dad. I mean, come on, five lakh is nothing! Hasmukh (to the audience) My sone the business man? Just listen to him. Ajit – I mean, it’s not as if I want the money for myself. It’s for his factory. But he just won’t listen to me. I don’t think he has listened to me entirelife. Hasmukh – Do you blame me for not listening to him? If I paid any attention to even one of his crackpot schemes. I wouldn’t be around to listen to anybody. Ajit – After all, I am the joint managing director. Hasmukh – Believe me, appointing him as the JMD was a big mistake. Ajit – And, after all, I am his son. Hasmukh – That was an even bigger mistake, what makes it worse is knowing that I actually prayed to get him. Oh God : I regret it all. Please let him just drop dead. No, no. What a terrible thing to say about one’s own son. I take it back. Dear God, don’t let him drop dead. Just turn him into a nice vegetable so he won’t be in my way. Ever since he entered my factory, he has been in my way. (CP p.455)

Hasmukh Mehta exercises hegemonic power over the rest of his family members to perpetuate his own conception of -self’ which he has in turn received from his father. He does allow Ajit to speak to government officials or to discuss business matters with his friends. His absolute authority over his business, house and other articles in amazing and ridiculous. -Hasmukh -That is too much ! (Goes to his room and pricks up the extension) Listen, you idiot. How many times have I told you not to speak to government officials : Fool! Ajit – Daddy! Hasmukh – And how many times have I told you not to talk to your friends about business matters! Swine! You won’t rest until you, he seen us all on the streets! Ajit – Daddy. Don’t shout, please what will Deepak think? Hasmuk – And you listen too, Dilip Ajit – Deepak, Daddy, please! Hasmukh – Deepak or Champak, whatever your name may be. If you are the same boy who comes to my office and flirts with my typists, then take some advice from an elder. Go home and mind your own business, or your father’s business. Yes. Go to your father’s typists. Then when he is fade up with you and throws you out. Come and join my son – on the roads. The two boy you can go singing on the highways like they do in films (Slams the phone down, painting) Ajit – (on the phone) Listen, Deepak I’ll call you again. What? Sure, take all the typists to the disco of you want. I don’t care. (buts the receiver down) Hasmukh – you think my son is the cause of my hypertension? Wait till you meet my wife (Enters the living room) Ajit – Daddy, you have no right to humiliate me in front of my friends! Hasmukh – I am not trying to humiliate you. I am trying to put some sense in you. Trying to fill up empty scaces.- (CP- 458) In the presence of Hasmukh, Ajit survives as a subaltern who can’t even speak. He has a realization of his position but his no power to express his choice. He expresses his anguish -Anything I do is wrong for you! Just because you are a self – made man and had a deprived child hood.- (C P – 454) The over interference of Hasmukh in the life of Ajit manifests the horrors of patriarchy that aims to control freedom and selfhood of all these who come under its umbrella.

Hasmukh – You have the right to listen to my advice and obey my orders. Ajit – Thank you, You are so generous. I could kiss your feet. Hasmukh – There’s no need to do that. Just polish my shoes every morning and I’ll be happy. Ajit – You will never happy. Not until all of us dance to your time. And I will never do that. Hasmukh – Don’t be so stubborn! Ajit – You are stubborn too! Hasmukh – I’m stubborn because I know I’m right. You’re stubborn because you are a nincompoop! (CP P. 458) Ajit in ispite of being a simpleton, is aware enough to ridicule the passion of his father – I mean that you want to run the show, play Big Boss as long as you can or as long as God permits. And when all of a sudden, you are -called to be a better world’ you will still want to play Big Boss- Hasmukh is confident that Ajit would not able to make spaces for himself without his protection and guidance. He calls Ajit a -zero’ -Hasmukh – Nowhere! That is just my point! If you are you, than you are no where. You are nothing just a big zero. No matter what you do, you you’ll remain a zero. Zero, Zero, Zero. On their own, the zeroes don’t mean a thing. But if there’s a number one standing before all those zeroes, then they really add up to a lot. Ajit – And I suppose you think you’re the number one In front of my zeroes. Hasmukh – Yes! Now you understand ! You do understand? At last! Ajit – How can anyone in this world be such a pompous fool? HASMUKH – A fool – yes Pompous? No , I don’t think you are pompous. You need brains to be pompous. (CP 461) In Hasmukh’s life, there are to distinctive spaces representing his interpersonal relationship – his relationship with his wife and son, and his relationship with his business world. -Sonal – How many times have I told you not to smoke? (Snatches the cigarette from Hasmukh) who do you think the doctors will blame if you get another heart attack? Me, who else? (stubs out the cigarette in an ashtray) And my sister Minal? Do you know what she told me when you got your first attack? You are not firm with him, she said. You know he has an abnormal heart but you still let him carry on smoking and drinking. My own sister blaming me for your condition! As if you would listen to me even if I was firm with. Hasmukh – Ha ! Doctors ! All they have to do is blame it all on my smoking and drinking. As for your sister Minal, she has as much brains as made monkey. (CP 467) One is chaotic and in complete while other is perfect and complete. However, In both these conditions he maintains his absolute control. He accuses his wife for wasting money in preparing rich dishes. -Hasmukh – What’s in it? Sonal – Carrot, cucumber and beetroot HASMUKH – Only sick people eat carrot, cucumber and beetroot. I want some real food what’s this? PREETI – That’s Aju’s halwa ! HASMUKH – Aha : (whisks it away form the table and rises. SONAL – You can’t eat that! What about your diabetes? The doctor said HASMUKH – (quite sternly) Enough ! One more word from you and I’ll personally put you on the next plane to Ahmedabad . (CP 472) He acknowledges Sonal’s company as the greatest tragedy of his life -then when I was twenty – one the greatest tragedy of my life took place.- Irony is obvious, Sonal is tragedy of his life but she is every time careful of his tables, high blood pressure and heart attacks. Hasmukh’s passion for authority and Sonal’s extreme submissiveness produces sentimental humour. – SONAL – (To Hasmukh) Have you finished eating the halwa? HASMUKH – Yes SONAL – Good. Are you satisfied ? If you want to eat something else apart from my head, there’s there is plenty here. HASMUKH – No, I don’t want to eat anything else. You can throw your head and the food into the rubbish box. (Gets up and makes to go to his bedroom) SONAL – Why don’t you go for a walk? May be you can digest some of that sugar. HASMUKH – I don’t feel like walking. I’ve already been out walking.- (CP 474) Hasmukh condemns his wife for her unability to realize the intricacy of business and even her failure to provide him a good healthy married life. His accusation is -twenty five years of marriage and I don’t think she has ever enjoyed sex. Twenty five years of marriage and I haven’t enjoyed sex with her. Hasmukh takes it as his right to display his dreams in which there is no space for the desires of others. Hasmukh’s statement about his wife strikes a tone of sarcasm and sexual colonialism. For him a faithful is as good as a faithful dog- Then I should be a vary happy man. I’ve get a loving wife who has been faithful to me like any dog would be.- (CP 473) Has Hasmukh’s consciousness of his authority, contempt for the simplicity of his son mockery of the submissiveness of his wife prepares a very ridiculous image of patriarchal authority. For him Ajit is his investment and he seeks the return of his own investment. -HASMUKH – Why does a man marry ? So that he can have a woman all to himself ? There’s more to it then that what ? Many be he need a faithful companion ? No. If that was it all men would keep dogs. No, No, I thing the important reason anyone should marry at all is to get a son. Why is it so important to get a son ? Because the son will carry on the family name ? ( pause ) Why did I marry ? Yes, to get a son. So that when I grow old, I can live life again through my son. Why did my father marry ? To get me. What6 did I marry ? To get Ajit – – ( An expression of di—— appears briefly on his face, then he coughs ) Then I should be a very happy man. I’ve got a loving wife who has been faithful to me like any dog would be. She has given me a son, which is what I wanted from her in the first place. I should be happy, right ? I’ve got what I want. ( Pause, Draws on his cigarette ) why do I have a mistress ? Because I am unhappy. ( Pause ) Why am I unhappy ? Because I don’t have a son, who is Ajit ? Isn’t he my son ? No. He’s just a boy who spends my money and lives in my house. He doesn’t behave like my son. A son should make me happy. Like I made my father happy. I listened to him. I did what he told me to do. I worked for him. I worked hard for him. I made him happy. That is what I wanted my son to make me. ( Gets a little worked up, But he failed ! Miserably ! He has not a single quality I look for him in a son ! He has made my entire life worthless ! He is going to destroy me ! it won’t be long before everything I worked for and achieved will be destroyed ! Finished because of him ! Well, I won’t let it happen ! I won’t let it happen ! I won’t let it. ( CP 475 ) He has his own vision of happiness but no happiness can come out in the form of domination that he has been exercising over Ajit and Sonal. In the first part of the play, Dattani presents a comprehensive but ridiculous concept of patriarchy it is not confined to gender binary alone, but it includes all modes of power domination. It is not a matter of convention but a matter of thought and attitude. Milton. During 17th century published his Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce and here he presents the relationship between – ruler ‘ and – subject ‘ medititated through the institution of marriage. He wrote – A family is a little commonwealth – – a school where in the first principles and grounds of government and subjection and learned – – so we may say of inferiors that can not be subject in family, they will hardly bought to yield, such subjection is very ought in church or commonwealth.-

Dattani is a tireless innovators who makes experiments with new theatrical devices to sustain nobility and dynamism. In the second part of the play, Hasmukh is dead but he appears on the stage as a Ghost. In his invisible presence, he encounters the inner conscience of all these characters whom he dominates in his life time. The idea of invisible presence as a super observer to make an assessment of his doings, is an excellent device of self realization. HASMUKH (to the audience ) Have you ever swing on a tamarind tree ? up side down ? you should try it some time. You can see the world the way it really is . it’s important to get a good grip on the branch with your legs. Then you can relax your hands and head. Like this. ( Demonstrate by lying on his back and letting his head and hands dangle over the side of the table ) How do I look ? I don’t know about me, but you all de3finitely look peculiar ( Points at someone ) your shoes need polishing. ( Straightens up ) That’s why the way I see my family now. Their lives have been turned upside down since Kiran entered this house. I suppose it was a nasty thing to do. Making Kiran come and live here. You may ask – what kind of a fool would ask him mistress to live with his family ? a fool who knows his family very well. Kiran may have been my mistress but she has far more brains than my wife ever had. But you should she her now, my wife ! Transformed. From stupid incapable house wife to clever incapable house wife. Everyday is a new lesson for her on husband – understanding. The more time she spends with Kiran, the more she learns about me. The more she learns about me, the more she will regret having been such a good – for – nothing wife. That will keep her being a happy widow ever after. One thing I can’t stand is a happy widow. There should be a low against them. ( Pause. He resumes his cr——- — position. ) There’s one more reason why I want Kiran here. To keep a check on my daughter – in – law. If there’s any more who has me worried, it’s her, she is a clever piece. Might find some loophole in the will. But Kiran is too clever for her. Any woman who is a mistress and a wife has to be clever. ( CP 496 ) It also contributes to sustain a lively humour with a constant shifts between illusion and reality. The garb of authority maintained by Hasmukh was method to save his own inner self from clashes of out side world. After the death of Hasmukh, the real nature of each character is freely revealed and their comments present a fine mockery of parental authority. Hasmukh intends to govern the fate of his family members even after his death. He assigned his – will ‘ to Kiran , an executive in her business. He is dead but Sonal is still to innocent to realize the distinction of life and death and she is still anxious for his tablets. After Hasmukh’s death, in spite of customary morning, there is a deep sigh of relief for every member of the family. – AJIT – I did not step in to my father’s shoes without a peep. PREETI – oh, so you did peep ! sorry. I didn’t hear you. May be you didn’t peep loud enough ! AJIT – I did not step in to my father’s shoes. I was shoved in to them. PREETI – By whom ? AJIT – BY my father ! HASMUKH – I didn’t shove him anywhere ( To the audience ) Did you ever see me showing around ? PREETI – What – – what are you saying ? AJIT – Can’t you see ? He is still alive. Though his will : Through his mistress PREETI – Oh ! the two things I hate most in this house. The will and his mistress ! Followed closely by your mother. AJIT – He is making me do things he wanted me to do. Through her : In the office. Without realizing it she has replaced father and is replacing me with father. PREETI – What are you talking about ? HASMUKH – He has never made any sense to me. You try your luck. ( CP. 500 / 501 ) Preeti, an obedient daughter – in – law emerges as a cunning and calculative woman having a perfect idea of her father – in – law’s intentions. The amazing reactions and witty remarks of Hasmukh at the reality of Sonal, Ajit and Preeti remarks Hasmukh at the reality of Sonal. Ajit and Preeti makes the play a sparking comedy. Sonan expresses her concept on the realization he used to have a mistress. She gathers courage to challenge his authority. – SONAL – And he wasn’t exactly in love with me either. If I’d known me had a mistress, I would have left him. HASMUKH – I should have told her years ago then. PREETi – Well. I have to suffer on account of you two. SONAL – How can you say that ? PREETI – He didn’t get along well with both you. So he did what he did. I was always obedient to him. SONAL – I haven’t noticed him leaving you any money ! you didn’t fool him for a second. HASMUKH – full makes! PREETI- Rubbish! SONAL- Anybody, it hardly your place to talk about money. You’ve married above your standars. PREETI – Well, that hardly holds good now, does it ? SONAL – How dare you say that ? PREETI – At last my father didn’t keep a mistress! AJIT – Preeti ! Don’t talk to mummy like that. SONAL _ That’s because he couldn,t offord one! HASMUKH _ Not bad at all ! I’ve misjudged the woman. (C P 481)

Preeti does not like the decision of appointing Kiran, the trustee of property. He clever advise gives an insight in to her character. She advises that they must try to prove that Hasmukh made his will not in the right frame of mind and it would make the will – invalid ‘. with exceptional ease she advises – Everything will be all right. All we have to do is get a doctor to say that he wasn’t all there during the last few months.- ( CP 482 ) Hasmukh Mehta in his invisible presence intends to control the fortune of his family members by controlling economic resources but the futility of his illusion has been exposed in the response of Preeti, Ajit and Sonal. Each one of them feels the suffocation of the authority of Hasmukh. Preeti’s whole concern is money. Sonal is conscious for her own freedom. Ajit laments his helplessness against the authority of his father that reduced his identity to cipher. If Preeti is contented. Ajit is anguished.

-HASMUKH – If he could feel me. I would kick him in the pants. AJIT – Everything is going according to your plans. You really have us concerned. You know I’m not fond of your money to give it all up and say to hell with you and your will. HASMUKH – I was very sure about that. Why do you thing I made the will ? AJIT – You must be happy now, wherever you are ( Steps Back ) Ever since I was a little boy, you have been running my life. Do this do that or don’t do that, do this. Was I scared of you ! Then, when I grew up, I learnt to assure you back. And were you furious with me ! I thing it was worth disagreeing with you. At last I have the satisfaction of knowing that you were worried about me. HASMUKH – Worried ? yes, like I was worried about my defective kidneys ( CP 487 ) Ajit regrets to get only a nominal salary out of the property of c——–. However, at this j——-, the authority of Hasmukh is reduced to the position of a photograph with sandalwood. In the later part of the play ( Will assumes the dimension of a living character. It controls and guides the action and dreams of each member of the family. Sonal admits – The will has left us all naked.- Kiran, in spite of controlling the authority, is only a trustee of all his wealth and not the owner it is not only the – Will ‘ the document, but the – Will ‘ choice of Hasmukh. Kiran too is subordinate to the will of Mehta. She is only an agent having no choice of her own. Her authority is confined only to the welfare of the business of Mr. Mehta. She comments – My main duty is to run the Mehta Group of Industries on behalf of Ajit Mehta. I have the authority to make all the major decisions in the interest of companies.- ( CP 493 ) The first part of Where There is a Will the assertion of patriarchy, second part is the mockery of patriarchy and second part of second act is the collapse of patriarchy. Earlier, Hasmukh had his own calculation. Have you ever swing on the tamarind tree ? upside down ? you should try it sometime. You can see the world the way it really is. It is important to get a good group on the branch with your legs. Than you can relax your hands and heads. Ajit is disgusted with the pain of rigorous office work. Contrary to his disgust, Sonal plans to make a – denture of solid gold ‘ and a – diamond necklace ‘ because she fancied her self to look widow who looks like – Diwali Crackers. ‘ Authority shifts to Sonal and as a careful mother – in – law, she tries to control the life of Preeti. Parental authority comes to Kiran in administrative affairs and it comes to Sonal in domestic affairs. Ajit still finds himself a – cipher ‘ for him Kiran’s authority brings a greater mental torture. He expresses his suffocation. – Everything she tells me to do is exactly what he would have wanted me to do. We are all living out a dead man’s dream! Quite a price to pay for a few crores of rupees to tide us by our old age.- Dattani manipulates the events in the play to tear the veil of illusion of parental authority. -Will’ is designed to control the fate of these who depend on him. It is said -The will here becomes the iconic instrument to power to shape and reshape the destiny of the family / familial relationship after his death. But the irony is that Hasmukh to give the devil his due, transfer this controlling the entire fabric of the monolithic that he is trying to preserve, immediately opening up the spaces for the individual identity that has all along sought to deny and witty and sparking dialogues are calculatively designed to give an insight into human frailities. The following dialogue is appropriate to give an insight into the intentions of Kiran and Sonal Kiran – No, I did all the cooking myself. Sonal – Really ! How did you manage ? cooking and work and everything. Kiran – I managed, I managed my work, I managed house, I managed my husband. Sonal – And mine too Kiran – Yes : your husband and your house too. Sonal’s single statement and mine too immediately thwarts all pride and arrogance of Kiran

Hasmukh Mehta’s parental authority was a tension not only for Sonal and Preeti, but also for Kiran. She confesses that she managed her relationship with an old and erratic man like Hasmukh, only for the money Preeti, a caring daughter – in – law also turns out to be a passionate desirous of money. Sonal discards the authority of Hasmukh with a very derogatory comment – He was like a village buffalo. What did he understand about other people’s feelings. – the reactions of these three women led to a common conclusion that they are not so weak and subjugated as they seems to be the confession of antagonism against male autonomy is a mockery of patriarchal tradition. Dattani’s efforts to let Kiran, Sonal and Preeti speak against the authority of Hasmukh, is not a sentimental defence of Indian feminism. Dattani’s women at the surface survives with in the locale of the family but at mental level, they are capable of evaluate, analyze and reject the irrational patriarchal authority. Preeti and Sonal inspite of their silent acceptance intelligent enough to detect the hidden motives of Hasmukh. Kiran sarcastically reveal that Hasmukh’s own identity was subordinated to her care and protest. She challenges – He is depended on me for everything. He thought he was the decision maker. But I was.he wanted to run his life,like his father had. Hasmukh didn’t really wanted a mistress. He wanted a father, He was in me a woman who would father him : – – man never really grows. ( CP 570 ) Kiran appreciates Ajit who is at last free from the whims of his father to control the lives of others.

The union of Kiran and Sonal, a collective force born out of the long annals of exploitations and suffering, is an effort to abolish sexual colonialism. Their collective voice is a declaration of woman emanicipation against the – Will ‘ of Hasmukh. The play Where There is a Will also follows the patterns of self assertion to self realization. Hasmukh breaks his mask and faces the hash reality with the realization. – HASMUKH – No, I don’t thing I can enter this house. It isn’t mine – – any more. I will permanently on the tamarind tree. ( Laughter at the table ) They are not my family any more. I wish I had never interfered with their lives. They look quite happy together. With Kiran sitting in my place. Oh , I wish I had been more – – I wish I had lived ( Exits ) – (CP 515 ) To use stage with the delight of a comic artist with precisely a serious thought, is the real strength of Dattani’s dramatic art in – Where There is a Will. ‘ the humour is sustained with the subtle sense of the realization of the intricacy of human nature with in the family as a unit. The – Will ‘ more than a document assumes the significance of a living character, controlling and guiding the action, stirring the consciousness of other characters and exposing the horrors of parental authority. It is not only a question of Hasmukh’s will but also a realization of the will of other characters. Besides thematic concern, the idea to visualize the consciousness of other characters in the disguise of a Ghost is an exceptional achievement of Dattani and it admits immense possibility in the realm of Indian drama in English


1.- No Time for Tragedy quoted in Ronald Hayman, Contemporary Playwrights, London : Heinemann, 1969, p, 95 2.Raina, Sita – A Not on the play – Collected Plays p. 449 3.Gorge. Willimas, Domesticall Duties, London, 1962, p. 18 4.Choudhuri, Asha Kuthari, Mahesh Dattani, p. 83 5.Mody, S. and S.mhatre – Sexual Class in India – BCAS, Vol 7 No 1, 1975 6.Mashesh Dattani – Where There is a Will ‘ in Mahesh Dattani : Collected Plays ( New Delhi, Penguin India, 2000 ) p. 496, 500, 501, 481, 482, 493, 487, 515,

Relationship Between The Printing Press And Music

When thinking about the invention of the printing press an immediate response is to think about the impact that turning point in history had on literature. Often the musical significance of this incredible invention is overlooked.This article will outline the early history of the printing press. Almost as soon as the printing press was developed, type designs were introduced. Type designs were created and linked to printing in different countries.

Even today, it is possible to see the effects that the printing press has on modern living. With having written words it was possible to be expressive through writing. Printed word established the relationship between art and printing. Decorative printing was a step in developing art in printing. To understand the link between printing and music it is important to know the difference between literature printing and musical notation. One obvious difference is that music texts are for performance. Another significant difference is that music texts are deciphered twice: first, by the performer and then by the listener.

The printing of music creates a direct connection between the composer and the performer. It is essential that the printing of music is as accurate as possible as this will be the only communication between the creation and reproduction.

Before the printing press original manuscripts, or hand written copies, were used to perform from. The printing press changed the size of pieces from the original manuscripts. Reading off of a smaller score puts constrictions to the performance of the work.

Published music was invented before the invention of the printing press. Early published music was reproduced by engraving on plates. This process was time consuming and very difficult.

Despite the fact that the printing press was invented in the fifteenth century, the first copyright law was not in place until the early eighteenth century. The purpose of having a copyright varies throughout the world. When copyright was first established it was used as a noun, literally meaning having the right in the copy. Having the right copy refers to giving credit to the individual who created the original idea. The shift today is the use of copyright as a verb the right to copy.

The printing press put many constraints on music. One constraint was the interpretation of music was limited. As the performance text grew further away from the composers original manuscript, the musical interpretation grew further away as well. Also, as mentioned earlier, there was a size difference in the paper produced from the printing press and original manuscripts. This size different changes the way the performer visually reads a piece.

With music being reproduced by printing presses and publishing houses, the need for a music editor arose. There are many disadvantages to have an editor working with music scores. A large problem musicians face is working with scores that have been over edited. Another related problem is the fact that many editors have not done significant research before they add material to the score.

With the rise of publishers, numerous editions are created, printing the same material. It is possible to buy two different editions of a piece with a discrepancy in something even as basic as having the correct notes. Some editions are not as researched as others, creating interpretations that may not be close to the composers original intention.


Printing previous to 1500 was referred to as the incunabula period. Incunabulum is derived from Latin which means cradle, therefore symbolizing the beginning of the art of printing. By the eighteenth century the term was applied to all books printed before 1500. In the nineteenth century, incunabulum meant any individual item that emanated from the printing presses of the fifteenth century.
Johann Gutenberg
Johann Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg began working with the invention of the printing press around 1440. He began working on this when he was a political exile at Strasbourg. Many people mistake Gutenbergs invention with the invention of published books. This belief is reinforced by the inevitable association of Gutenbergs name with the 42-line Bible. Gutenberg should receive credit for the invention of the method of producing punches and matrices to be used with a mold for metal types of identical height. Thereby it was possible to produce a type having a uniform rectangular body. The individual letters so cast could be placed by the compositor in proper juxtaposition to one another in free combination. They were interchangeable, hence the term movable metal types.

This printing press was large and very difficult to operate. The awkward machine made presswork toilsome; and it was incapable of printing a full sheet of paper at one pull. Despite this fact it still increased the number of literate people in the world.

Gutenberg quit working on the printing press for two main reasons. The first is that his source of funding was taken away. Gutenberg had a patron who in 1455 foreclosed on him and gave most of the presses and types to his soon to be son-in-law Schffer of Gernsheim. The second reason the Gutenberg gave up working on the printing press was due to physical reasons. Gutenberg became blind after 1460 and abandoned any further pursuit of his invention.

Gutenberg died in 1468 and his epitaph reads to the immortal memory of Johannes Gensfleisch, the inventor of the art of printing, who has deserved well of every nation and language. His invention influenced the rest of the world for many centuries after his death. After the early invention of the printing press it reached a state of technical efficiency not materially surpassed until well into the nineteenth century.

Consolidation Era

After the invention of the printing press, from around 1550 until 1800, the consolidation era was established. As mentioned earlier, no technical advancements were made to the printing press during this time. Neither were there any new inventions, regarding the printing press, made during this time. The consolidation era, as the name suggests, stabilized the printing industry.

During this time the working middle class people had the opportunity to learn how to read and write. Before this it was reserved as a privilege for the wealthy to be literate. Because more people were now reading it was necessary to provide information to people for them to read. The general publics desire for quick information and for regular entertainment brought into existence the periodical press.

The first public library was developed during the consolidation era. Before libraries existed with manuscripts but were for private use only, owned by various people like Julius Caesar.

Censorship of printed word was established in the consolidation era. It was the responsibility of the lay and the church to censor the publications. Printers and publishers did not always appreciate censorship and would use the smallest possible size, the largest possible types, and every other device which a century-old fight against censorship had taught them.

Nineteenth Century Printing

In the nineteenth century the technique of printing gradually changed. There was a hesitation from the public to advance further in the printing press in order to avoid mechanization. By the late nineteenth century, the concept of mechanization [began] to make an impact on letter-founding, type-composition, and bookbinding, and not until the late 1880s did the combined casting and composing machine become a commercial reality.
The nineteenth century brought about technical progress in the printing press. This was the century that began the slow process of turning printing from a trade into an industry.

The strict regulations for censorship had been lifted during this century. Censorship was now based on voluntary [agreements] of the parties concerned and not on compulsory measures of the authorities.
It was during this century that governments used the press for large scale, direct, and incessant appeals and orders to the masses. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic France governments were first to use press this way.
Type Design

After the death of Gutenberg in 1468, the printing press had spread throughout many different countries. By the middle of the sixteenth century every nation developed a certain type design. Type design throughout history has always had a deeper, more political meaning than it appears at first. When Roman and Italic types were invented they
represented the humanism in people. The type design of Germany, Russia, and Turkey represented the resistance to humanism. The importance of type design can be noted by the recent transition to the Latin alphabet by the Germans and Turks is a major step towards the unity of world civilization; just as the refusal of post-Lenin Russia to abandon the Cyrillic letter nay, its progressive imposition on the Soviet colonials is a significant omen of the deep cleavage between East and West.


After discussing type design it is possible to see the relationship between art and printing. With the beginning of printed books there was a high level of technical achievements but this was combined with great beauty of design, that the printing of music began. Visual effects of printed music are vital to the overall effect the music will have on the performer and audience. Engraving of music connected the visual aspect of music to the notating process. This process of engraving naturally led to a great increase in the use of pictorial title pages and decorated borders. Illustrations were sometimes used, even as far as to having comic pictures between staves and in the margins of the music.

Difference Between Printing and Music

There is a large difference between printing music and printing solely verbal text. A quote from Kings Four Hundred Years of Music Printing summarizes the difference between literature and musical notation:
the letters forming a word represent a concept to be conveyed by the eye to the brain, in music the note, whether accompanied by a text or not, is primarily an instruction to bring into action lungs or fingers, or both combined, in order to produce a sound at a certain pitch and of a certain duration.

The difficulty with musical notation is that the symbols need to be made as clearly and precise as possible.
There are two aspects of musical notation: horizontality and verticality. Horizontality refers to the horizontal aspects of music notation. One point in horizontality is the relationship between each note. This includes the intervallic relationship from note to note. Another aspect of horizontality is the changes in spacing between one note or group of notes and the next, as required by changes in time-values.

The vertical aspect of musical notation sets it completely apart from verbal text, as the concept of writing two words at the same time is not practical. The vertical part of musical notation is having the two or more notes in the same alignment on the stave. This vertical arrangement is important in vocal works as a precise vertical relationship has also to be established between the notes on the stave and the syllables of the underlying text.

If the printed musical score is altered in any way the horizontality and verticality could potential have a different meaning to the reader. This could in turn alter the performance and bring the work further away from the composers original idea.

Another main difference between music texts and literature is the fact that musical texts are performance texts. Musical texts presume a musical performance, with the result that music as manifest in print leads a dual life as text and performance. Understanding that in earlier times music reached people mainly by performances it is important to note that any history of the musical cultures of print must engage performative issues.

Deciphering music as a performative text adds certain angles that are not present in literature. It is important to note that performance and print both shape the way music conveys its meaning; yet while historians of music have long been cognizant of the former that performers interpret and mold the meaning of the texts they realize they have rarely theorized the implications of print in similar terms. Often performers will trust what is written on the page instead of looking for the true intention of the composer. The effect that printed music has on performance is so great that it [stands] alongside performance in the triangle if [forms] with composers and audiences.

Musical texts are deciphered twice which does not occur often in literature. Musical text meanings unfold twice as they are read both by musicians and then by audiences. In the first instance, the black signs cast across the pages of musical scores give musicians instructions for how to perform a given piece; the notes help musicians to produce a reading of a piece, public or private, whether with instruments, voice, or both. The only link that the audience has to the music is what the performer portrays and the only thing that the performer can give the audience is what he takes from the musical score.

Due to the fact that reading music produces an audible sound, it is understood that this type of reading is not transparent, like most literature texts. Interpretation of musical scores creates variant readings with each performance, impressing their individual marks upon the works they play. Because of this fact it is argued that musicians approximate texts. The appearance of the musical text is essential for a successful interpretation as it can [disrupt] the linear continuum between composer and audience in the same way that musical performances do. Print complicates and expands this middle ground by multiplying the material forms of texts and thereby multiplying their meanings.

It is possible to compare the performance of musical scores to reading a book to someone that is illiterate. The musicians mediate what for many listeners is an illegible text, pages of hieroglyphs that require special literacy: the score. Notation alone sets music apart from literature.

Like someone telling a story, the performance of a musical text becomes available to an audience of listeners who in turn read the music they hear, responding to it, making sense of it, multiplying its meanings.

Another difficulty facing printing of musical scores is the distance that the text is kept from the performer. In a performance music is usually placed further away from the eye than is the text of a book when being read, the factors of distance and proportion produce special problems of design. The musical text needs to be extra clear because of the distance kept from the performer.


The concept of representing music by notation is accredited to the Greeks since musical notation is as old as the alphabet, for that is as far as our knowledge goes; and the Greeks were the earliest to make use of this principle. By Pope Gregorys time, around the middle of the sixth century, it was important to write down music as it was realized that unless sounds are retained in the memory, they perish, because they cannot be written.

The time right after the invention of the printing press printed music became more popular. By 1465 printing began to supersede manuscript music. Despite the increase in using the printing press music printing remained very far behind the progress made in other branches of typography.

The first record of printed music dates back to 1473. This document only contains five notes of music. Even with the little amount of musical notation in this work it actually [formed] the foundation of music printing. The first book of printed music was made around this same time. It is a Gradual that lacks both a date and a printers name, but the type used to print the text is identical with that of the Constance Breviary one copy of which was lubricated in 1473. Another clue as to the date of this book is the fact that the press that was used to publish this book had a short life span.

The first printed music with an actual date is a Missal from Rome that was dated October 12, 1476. This music was printed in Roman notation, with initials in red or blue, and touches of yellow in the capitals, all added by hand.

Even though the printing press had been invented it was common in this time period to add details by hand. This would include adding colors or extra details that the printing press was not capable of doing. Sometimes the music staves would be blank and the notes would be added by hand.

By around 1690 improvements were being made to the design of printed music. John Heptinstall came up with the system of joining together the hooks of the quavers and semiquavers. Quavers and semiquavers refer to eighth and sixteenth notes that before this time had been written with separate flags. Hepinstall also introduced a further improvement, that of making the heads of the notes round instead of lozenge-shaped.

Even with these improvements in the seventeenth century there were still weaknesses in the printing of music. The weakness of movable type with musical notation lay in its clumsiness and lack of flexibility when used for printing chords and florid music.

The year 1683 marked the beginning of sheet music. This is quite different from sheet music as we know it today, as this was created by using metal sheets to engrave the music onto. Thomas Cross was practically the inventor of sheet music and after copying Purcells Sonatas of III parts signed his name on the bottom.

By the middle of the seventeenth century the variety of music expanded to include more concerti and symphonies, requiring more instruments and printed parts. This increase in parts meant that a large quantity of separate parts required had to be supplied in multiple copies more quickly than was usually possible by the use of movable type or by the employment of handcopyists.

The beginning of the eighteenth century marked the decline of music printed from type. The reason for this decrease
was that musical composition had become more elaborate and the old movable type was found inadequate to represent it. Copperplate engraving, which was then flourishing and largely used, was, therefore, naturally adopted. This method was, however, found expensive, so that it became in a measure superseded by the method of punching the notes on pewter plates.

Another important milestone in the eighteenth century was the printing of the first music book, in the United States, from movable type. This book was Fnff schne Geistliche Lieder, published in Germantown, Pennsylvania. It was published by Christoph Saur who was also responsible for designing the type.

At the end of the eighteenth century and the turn of the nineteenth century lithography was adopted as a primary source of printing music. Lithography involves [writing] on [a] stone with greasy ink, and then [coating] the surgace with a mixture of water, acid and gum Arabic. Finally [inking] the whole, and the ink was absorbed solely by the writing. Thus an impression was left which could be taken directly from the surface of the stone.

By the nineteenth century printing using lithography was not as common. This process was being switched from printing on stones to printing on metal plates [making] printing easier and quicker. This process produced many large works in the eighteenth century including eight full scores of Rossini operas and the seven-volume Raccolta di musica sacra.
Later in the nineteenth century lithographic stones were replaced by plates made of zinc and aluminum which increased the speed of production. More advances in printing have developed due to the invention of photographic techniques and other mechanical devices. It is possible with these machines to produce elaborate scores. However, despite the potential these new machines have the once tasteful and diversified art of music printing has generally reached a level of uniformity more widespread than at any time in its history. Failing a revolution in design or technique, the printed note now seems to have lost its former capacity to rival the range of processes and founts of type which were and still are available for the printing of books.


The invention of the printing press indirectly puts constraints on the performance of music. Constraints include things such as limited music interpretation, over editing and having numerous editions of the same piece of music.

In the Renaissance, when the printing press was first put to use, composers were worried about the effect that the printing press would have on their compositions. They thought that print represented a loss of control and compared their printed works to children sent out alone into the world.

With a standardized look modern printing has, printed music detracts from the art of the original manuscript. The desire of musical scores is to create a work that is as close to the composers original idea. Editions that have manuscript sources, , [promise] a version of the text that [seems] closer to the authors original or final intentions.

Many problems occur with the editors of music. It has been found that the variants introduced by earlier editors, the errors of compilers and typesetters, and the abbreviations used in early printed books all [stand] in the way of recovering the authors authentic text. In many editions something as basic as correct notes are not consistent which creates the need to identify the errors and correct them.

The invention of the printing press had a significant effect on history from that point and after. Type designs were created by various countries where the printing press had quickly spread to many countries.

Art is connected with printing in many ways. The printing press was another way for people to express their creativity. This could be done with adding color or other hand written details.

The link between music and printing is essential to understand before one can see the impact that the invention of the printing press had on music. The differences between literature and musical notation are significant. Musical texts are performance texts and are deciphered twice.

The history of printed music dates earlier than the invention of the printing press. The early forms of printing music ranged from engraving onto copper plates to carving pieces of wood.

Printed music adds many constraints on the performance of music. The musical interpretation can suffer from reading off of various scores. Also, it is easy for editors to make mistakes, which in turn causes confusion for the performer. Related to this, with many editions it is difficult for the performer to know which edition is the most accurate.

The printing of books is not what makes Gutenbergs invention so significant in history. The important thing to note about the printing press is its ability to produce a large amount of identical copies. This principle, with the help of technology, has made it possible to produce millions of identical newspapers within a few hours. It is this principle that has made Gutenbergs invention a turning point in the history of civilization.

Winds Of Change Why Young India Prefer To Buy Books Online

Through enterprising offers like cash on delivery and free home delivery by courier anywhere in India, online book stores in India are tapping into the buying power of young India.

As a nation we are hooked on to buying things off the shelf and that rule applies to books as well. As such, the concept of an online book store in India is relatively new. But in the last two years, Indian netizens have become quite comfortable with the idea of online shopping. Of course it helps that a major chunk of this net savvy population falls in the age group of 17-34 who spend at least a quarter of their time on online platforms like Facebook and Twitter (The Economist). Targeted ads by any online book store on them ensure that the correct audience is tapped into.

To top it all, in the 21st century, time has become a luxury. With so many avenues to explore, people dont have the time to leisurely browse around a book store. In India, access to many publications have been possible through the advent of online book stores. Book lovers can now browse through a range of books at a time convenient to them and order any title with the click of a button. One of the major reasons why people prefer to buy books online is the variety of payment options which can be made by credit card, cheques as well as cash on delivery which is by far the most popular payment method. The fact that buyers can enjoy free home delivery of their purchase is another incentive to Buy Books Online. And this facility is extended all over the country, irrespective of the location.

Another advantage that an online book store has over a traditional brick and mortar bookstore is space. In a virtual world, hundreds of book titles can be displayed which is not an option that a book store in India has. Plus, it also does away with the problem of ignorant attendants who are unable to guide you to books of your choice. In an online book store, books are systematically arranged in an easy to find search functionality which provides users a digitally rich buying experience.

The positive response from buyers also makes an online book store in India improve its logistics as far as delivery is concerned. Generally, if its an Indian publication, the delivery date is within a week. But for imported editions, the waiting period can be as long as a month or longer as the online book store has to wait for the shipment from the foreign publisher. For international publishers, online book stores in India are a way of reaching out to a new audience. With new books and rare editions slowly trickling in, things can only become better for Indian book lovers who buy books online.